Population information

Order name Anseriformes
Family name Anatidae
Scientific name Mergellus albellus Common name Smew
Population name North-east Europe/Black Sea & East Mediterranean
Breeding range N Scandinavia, N Russia Non-breeding range Black Sea, E Mediterranean
Red List Category Least Concern
Ramsar regions Asia Europe
Notes

Conservation Framework

Conservation framework Notes
AEWA
EUBD
Note:

Population size

Publication Start year End year Minimum Maximum Estimate quality Notes References Actions
WPE 2 0 0 65,000 65,000 [R456]
WPE 1 0 0 65,000 65,000 [R456]
WPE 3 0 0 35,000 35,000 [R579]
WPE 4 0 0 35,000 35,000 [R579]
WPE 5 2001 2001 35,000 35,000 Expert opinion [R579]
CSR 4 2001 2001 35,000 35,000 Expert opinion [R579]
CSR 5 2001 2001 35,000 35,000 Expert opinion [R579]
CSR 6 1990 2012 20,000 30,000 Expert opinion [S8570] [R1365] [R1362] [R1361]

Population trends

Publication Start year End year Trend Trend quality Notes References Actions
WPE 2 0 0 STA [R456]
WPE 1 1967 1986 STA [R456]
WPE 3 0 0 Unknown
WPE 4 0 0 Unknown
WPE 5 1990 2000 STA No idea [R66]
CSR 4 0 0 Unknown No idea [T3795] [R904]
CSR 5 1990 2000 STA No idea [R66]
CSR 6 1990 2012 DEC? Poor [T6563] [R1381] [R63]

Population 1% level

Publication Yearset 1 percent Note
WPE 2 1997 650
WPE 1 1994 650
WPE 3 2002 350
WPE 4 2006 350
WPE 5 2012 350
CSR 4 0 -1
CSR 5 0 -1
CSR 6 0 -1

References

  • R456 - Monval, J-Y. and Pirot, J-Y. 1989. Results of the IWRB International Waterfowl Census 1967-1986. IWRB Spec. Publ. No. 8. Slimbridge, UK.
  • R579 - Scott, D.A. in press, 2002. Report on the Conservation Status of Migratory Waterbirds in the Agreement Area. Update Report to African Eurasian Migratory Waterbird Agreement Secretariat
  • R66 - BirdLife International Website 2002
  • R904 - Wetlands International. November 2007. Unpublished population trend analysis based on the IWC database of January counts in Europe using TRIM software.
  • R1365 - Wetlands International, International Waterbird Census, unpublished data, 2014.
  • R1362 - European Topic Centre on Biological Diversity (in prep) Population and trend data provided by the EU Member States in the frame of their reporting under Article 12 of the EU Birds Directive. Online fact sheets. European Topic Centre on Biological Diversity, Paris. URL: http://bd.eionet.europa.eu/activities/Reporting/Article_12/Reports_2013/Member_State_Deliveries. Accessed on 31 July 2014.
  • R1361 - BirdLife International, BTO, EBCC, CSO, IUCN, RSPB, SOVON, Wetlands International (in prep) Population and trend data provided to the European Red List of Birds Project funded by the European Commission. Digital dataset. BirdLife International, Cambridge, UK. Accessed on 31 July 2014.
  • R1381 - Nagy, S., Flink, S., Langendoen, T. (2014) Waterbird trends 1988-2012: Results of trend analyses of data from the International Waterbird Census in the African-Eurasian Flyway. Wetlands International, Ede.
  • R63 - BirdLife International (2004)b. Birds in Europe, population estimates, trends and conservation status. Cambridge, UK: BirdLife International. (BirdLife Conservation Series No. 12).
  • R1548 - Wetlands International (2017) Flyway trend analyses based on data from the African-Eurasian Waterbird Census from the period of 1967-2015. Ede, The Netherlands: Wetlands International. Temporary URL: https://www.dropbox.com/sh/r76f4eyuhzu65co/AADzzQkhySsUDsmwFJUcHs91a?dl=0
  • R1549 - BirdLife International 2015. European Red List of Birds. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities. http://datazone.birdlife.org/info/euroredlist

Notes

  • T3795 - 914. Improving data quality suggests decreasing trend.
  • S8570 - The average IWC count totals was only 2,583 individuals during the period of 2008-2012 and the sum of the site-level 5-year means was 8,108 individuals. The peak IWC count was 29,338 individuals in Jan. 2005. The sum of the national estimates for wintering birds in RO and BG is 3,005-5,280 individuals (European Topic Centre on Biological Diversity, in prep., BirdLife International et al., in prep.) and based on BirdLife International (2004) further 8,036-21,561 individuals can be assumed in UA, TR, RS&ME and GE. However, the 3,700-13,000 individuals estimate for RS&ME has never showed in the IWC counts although there is a complete coverage along the Danube in RS, RO and BG as well as Lake Skadar in ME is also regularly counted.
  • T6563 - Trend analysis of the IWC data shows large fluctuation, but the overall trend is a statistically significant long-term decline despite relatively high uncertainties in annual estimations. However, real counts are less than 30% of the annual total adjusted for missing counts in 15 out of 25 years. Therefore, the results shall be treated with caution. On the other hand, decrease was also reported from the large population in RO. BirdLife International (2004) also reported decrease from UA, but fluctuations from BG and increase from RS&MN during the 1990s. The breeding population in RU decreased during the same period.
  • S9069 - The annual IWC count totals were around 3,000 - 4,700 individuals during the period of 2008-2012. The peak IWC count was 29,338 individuals in Jan. 2005. BirdLife International (2015) reported 7,700 - 26,000 wintering individuals, which seems to be high compared to the 3,000 - 5,000 breeding pairs estimated for 50% of RU.
  • T6970 - 1997-2015: 0.9551 (SE 0.0223). BirdLife International (2015) has also reported declines in the RU breeding population.



Copyright Wetlands International 2012

Citation: Wetlands International (). "Waterbird Population Estimates" . Retrieved from wpe.wetlands.org on