Population information

Order name Anseriformes
Family name Anatidae
Scientific name Mergellus albellus Common name Smew
Population name North-west & Central Europe (win)
Breeding range N Scandinavia, N Russia Non-breeding range NW & Central Europe
Red List Category Least Concern
Ramsar regions Europe
Notes

Conservation Framework

Conservation framework Notes
AEWA
EUBD
Note:

Population size

Publication Start year End year Minimum Maximum Estimate quality Notes References Actions
WPE 1 0 0 15,000 15,000 [R456]
WPE 3 1995 1996 40,000 40,000 [R181]
WPE 2 0 0 25,000 30,000 [R531]
WPE 4 1995 1996 40,000 40,000 [R181]
WPE 5 1995 1996 40,000 40,000 Expert opinion [R181]
CSR 5 1995 1996 40,000 40,000 Expert opinion [R181]
CSR 4 1995 1996 40,000 40,000 Expert opinion [R181]
CSR 6 2001 2012 23,000 38,000 Expert opinion [S8569] [R1365] [R1362] [R1361]

Population trends

Publication Start year End year Trend Trend quality Notes References Actions
WPE 1 1967 1986 STA [R456]
WPE 3 1987 1996 INC [R181]
WPE 2 0 0 Unknown
WPE 4 0 0 Unknown
WPE 5 1997 2007 INC Reasonable [T6176] [R888]
CSR 5 1997 2007 INC Reasonable [T3792] [R888]
CSR 4 1995 2005 STA Reasonable [T3791] [R904]
CSR 6 2000 2012 STA? Poor [T6562] [R1381] [R1362] [R1352] [R1446]

Population 1% level

Publication Yearset 1 percent Note
WPE 1 1994 150
WPE 3 2002 400
WPE 2 1997 250
WPE 4 2006 400
WPE 5 2012 400
CSR 5 0 -1
CSR 4 0 -1
CSR 6 0 -1

References

  • R456 - Monval, J-Y. and Pirot, J-Y. 1989. Results of the IWRB International Waterfowl Census 1967-1986. IWRB Spec. Publ. No. 8. Slimbridge, UK.
  • R181 - Delany, S.N., Reyes, C. Hubert, E., Pihl, S., Rees, E., Haanstra, L., and van Strien, A. 1999. Results from the International Waterbird Census in the Western Palearctic and Southwest Asia 1995 and 1996.
  • R531 - Pihl, S. and Laursen, K. 1996. A reestimation of Western Palearctic seaduck numbers from the Baltic Sea 1993 Survey. In: Proceedings of Anatidae 2000. M. Birkan, J. van Vessem, P. Havet, J. Madsen, B. Trolliet, and M. Moser (eds.). Gibier Faune Sauvage, G
  • R888 - Wetlands International, 2012. Results of trend analysis undertaken for CSR5 2012, presented in Annex 4. http://www.unep-aewa.org/meetings/en/mop/mop5_docs/pdf/mop5_14_csr5.pdf
  • R904 - Wetlands International. November 2007. Unpublished population trend analysis based on the IWC database of January counts in Europe using TRIM software.
  • R1365 - Wetlands International, International Waterbird Census, unpublished data, 2014.
  • R1362 - European Topic Centre on Biological Diversity (in prep) Population and trend data provided by the EU Member States in the frame of their reporting under Article 12 of the EU Birds Directive. Online fact sheets. European Topic Centre on Biological Diversity, Paris. URL: http://bd.eionet.europa.eu/activities/Reporting/Article_12/Reports_2013/Member_State_Deliveries. Accessed on 31 July 2014.
  • R1361 - BirdLife International, BTO, EBCC, CSO, IUCN, RSPB, SOVON, Wetlands International (in prep) Population and trend data provided to the European Red List of Birds Project funded by the European Commission. Digital dataset. BirdLife International, Cambridge, UK. Accessed on 31 July 2014.
  • R1381 - Nagy, S., Flink, S., Langendoen, T. (2014) Waterbird trends 1988-2012: Results of trend analyses of data from the International Waterbird Census in the African-Eurasian Flyway. Wetlands International, Ede.
  • R1352 - Aunins, A., Nilsson, L., Hario, M., Garthe, S., Dagys, M., Pedersen, I.K., Skov, H., Lehikoinen, A., Mikkola-Roos, M., Ranft, S., Stipniece, A., Luigujoe, L., Kuresoo, A., Meissner, W. and Korpinen, S. 2013. Abundance of waterbirds in the wintering season. HELCOM Core Indicator Report. URL: http://www.helcom.fi/Core%20Indicators/HELCOM-CoreIndicator_Abundance_of_waterbirds_in_the_wintering_season.pdf.
  • R1446 - Pavon-Jordan (in prep).
  • R1549 - BirdLife International 2015. European Red List of Birds. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities. http://datazone.birdlife.org/info/euroredlist
  • R1548 - Wetlands International (2017) Flyway trend analyses based on data from the African-Eurasian Waterbird Census from the period of 1967-2015. Ede, The Netherlands: Wetlands International. Temporary URL: https://www.dropbox.com/sh/r76f4eyuhzu65co/AADzzQkhySsUDsmwFJUcHs91a?dl=0

Notes

  • T6176 - Wetlands International 2012. Trend 1983-2007: +2.8% p.a. ? Increase.
  • T3792 - 898. Trend 1983-2007: +2.8% p.a. – Increase.
  • T3791 - 914. Trend close to stable in both NW and Central Europe.
  • S8569 - The average IWC count total was 13,680 individuals during the period of 2008-2012. The sum of the site-level 5-year means was 23,720 individuals during the same period. As a partly marine species, significant numbers can be missed through on-shore observations. The total of the national wintering population estimates in the above mentioned countries was 23,770-38,041 individuals between 2001 and 2012 (European Topic Centre on Biological Diversity, in prep., BirdLife International et al., in prep.). 3,100-7,500 pairs breed in FI and SE (European Topic Centre on Biological Diversity, in prep., BirdLife International et al., in prep.) and further 1,210-1,820 pairs in RU (50%) and NO (BirdLife International, 2004). This yields an estimate of 15,000-32,000 individuals, but it heavily relies on the proportion of the RU breeding population belonging to this biogeographic population. The sum of the national wintering population estimates, i.e. 23,000-38,000 is adopted as the new population estimate.
  • T6562 - The IWC trend indicates large increase in the long-term and large decrease in the short one (Nagy et al., 2014). The overall trend derived from the national trend estimates for wintering birds in AT, BE, DE, DK, EE, FI, FR, HU, IE, LT, LV, LU, NL, PL, SE , SK and the UK suggests a long-term increase (1980-2012: 1.0133-1.0232) and a fluctuating short-term one (2000-2012: 0.9817-1.0167, European Topic Centre on Biological Diversity, in prep.). Aunins et al. (2013) reported an increase in the Baltic Sea between 1991 and 2010, while Pavon-Jordan et al (in press) found no overall trend across the flyway, but demonstrated a shift towards northwest. Hence the large decrease in the IWC counts may reflect only the range shift. The breeding population in FI and SE is stable (European Topic Centre on Biological Diversity, in prep., BirdLife International et al., in prep.) and no recent data from NO or RU although BirdLife International (2004) reported it increasing in NO and decreasing in RU during the 1990s.
  • S9068 - The IWC count totals were around 15,000-22,000 individuals between 2011-2015 (Wetlands International 2017). BirdLife International (2015) reported 24,000-38,422 wintering individuals and 6,135-12,565 breeding pairs (i.e. 18,000 - 38,000 individuals) based on national estimates between 2001 and 2012.
  • T6969 - Stable or even positive trend based on IWC data (Wetlands International 2017) which is also suggested by BirdLife International (2015) for the period of 2000-2012.



Copyright Wetlands International 2012

Citation: Wetlands International (). "Waterbird Population Estimates" . Retrieved from wpe.wetlands.org on