|Scientific name||Melanitta fusca||Common name||Velvet Scoter|
|Population name||Western Siberia & Northern Europe/NW Europe|
|Breeding range||W Siberia, N Europe||Non-breeding range||Baltic, W Europe|
|Red List Category||Vulnerable|
|Ramsar regions||Asia Europe|
|Publication||Start year||End year||Minimum||Maximum||Estimate quality||Notes||References||Actions|
|WPE 1||0||0||250,000||250,000||No quality assessment||[R532]|
|WPE 2||0||0||1,000,000||1,000,000||No quality assessment||[R531]|
|WPE 3||0||0||1,000,000||1,000,000||No quality assessment||[R531]|
|WPE 4||0||0||1,000,000||1,000,000||No quality assessment||[R531]|
|WPE 5||1993||1993||450,000||450,000||Expert opinion||[R889]|
|CSR 5||1993||1993||450,000||450,000||Expert opinion||[R889]|
|CSR 4||1993||1993||450,000||450,000||Expert opinion||[R889]|
|CSR 6||2007||2009||450,000||500,000||Expert opinion||[S8563]||[R1362] [R1361] [R889]|
|CSR 7||1999||2015||320,000||550,000||Expert opinion||[R1596]|
|Publication||Start year||End year||Trend||Trend quality||Notes||References||Actions|
|WPE 1||0||0||STA||No quality assessment||[R532]|
|WPE 2||1987||1993||STA||No quality assessment||[R531]|
|WPE 3||1987||1993||STA||No quality assessment||[R531]|
|WPE 4||1987||1993||STA||No quality assessment||[R531]|
|CSR 6||1992||2009||DEC?||Poor||[T6556]||[R889] [R1362] [R1361]|
|CSR 7||1992||2009||DEC?||Poor||[T6983]||[R1548] [R1549]|
Population 1% level
|CSR 5||-1||-1||Not Set|
|CSR 4||-1||-1||Not Set|
|CSR 6||-1||-1||Not Set|
- R532 - Pirot, J-Y., Laursen, K., Madsen, J. and Monval, J-Y. 1989. Population estimates of swans, geese, ducks, and Eurasian Coot (Fulica atra) in the Western Palearctic and Sahelian Africa. In: Boyd, H. and Pirot, J.-Y. (eds.). Flyways and Reserves Networks. IWRB Spec. Publ. No.9. Slimbridge, UK
- R531 - Pihl, S. and Laursen, K. 1996. A reestimation of Western Palearctic seaduck numbers from the Baltic Sea 1993 Survey. In: Proceedings of Anatidae 2000. M. Birkan, J. van Vessem, P. Havet, J. Madsen, B. Trolliet, and M. Moser (eds.). Gibier Faune Sauvage, G
- R889 - Skov, H., Hein?nen, S., ?ydelis, R, Bellebaum, J., Bzoma, S., Dagys, M., Durinck, J., Garthe, S., Grishanov, G., Hario, M., Kieckbusch, J.K., Kube, J., Kuresoo, A., Larsson, K., Luigujoe, L., Meissner, W., Nehls, H.W., Nilsson, L., Petersen, I.K., Roos, M.M., Pihl, S., Sonntag, N. Stock, A. and A. Stipniece. 2011. Waterbird populations and pressures in the Baltic Sea. TemaNord 2010: XX. Nordic Council of Ministers, Copenhagen.
- R1362 - European Topic Centre on Biological Diversity (in prep) Population and trend data provided by the EU Member States in the frame of their reporting under Article 12 of the EU Birds Directive. Online fact sheets. European Topic Centre on Biological Diversity, Paris. URL: http://bd.eionet.europa.eu/activities/Reporting/Article_12/Reports_2013/Member_State_Deliveries. Accessed on 31 July 2014.
- R1361 - BirdLife International, BTO, EBCC, CSO, IUCN, RSPB, SOVON, Wetlands International (in prep) Population and trend data provided to the European Red List of Birds Project funded by the European Commission. Digital dataset. BirdLife International, Cambridge, UK. Accessed on 31 July 2014.
- R1596 - Dagys, Mindaugas . 2017. Draft AEWA International Single Species Action Plan for the Velvet Scoter Melanitta fusca (Western Siberia & Northern Europe/NW Europe population) 2018-2027. URL: http://www.trackingactionplans.org/SAPTT/downloadDocuments/openDocument?idDocument=35
- R1548 - Wetlands International (2017) Flyway trend analyses based on data from the African-Eurasian Waterbird Census from the period of 1967-2015. Ede, The Netherlands: Wetlands International. URL: http://iwc.wetlands.org/index.php/aewatrends
- R1549 - BirdLife International 2015. European Red List of Birds. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities. http://datazone.birdlife.org/info/euroredlist
- T6162 - Skov et al. 2011. 415,000 in Baltic Sea 2007-2009. Over 95% of this population occurred in the Baltic in the 1990s and this implies a 55% decline since the last comprehensive survey assuming a similar current distribution.
- T3763 - 899. 415,000 in Baltic Sea 2007-2009. Over 95% of this population occurred in the Baltic in the 1990s and this implies a 55% decline since the last comprehensive survey assuming a similar current distribution.
- S8563 - The total of the national estimates of wintering birds is 321,629-548,184 individuals (European Topic Centre on Biological Diversity, in prep., BirdLife International et al., in prep.). Skov et als. (2011) estimated the population wintering in the Baltic at 373,000 individuals and 77,000 were added for countries outside of the Baltic. National breeding estimates add up to 72,550-95,100 pairs, i.e. 217,650-285,300 individuals, without West Siberia.
- T6556 - Skov et al. (2011) reported a large decrease in the Baltic population. Trend of the breeding population is unknown in RU, decreasing in EE, FI, NO, stable in SE while the trend of wintering birds is decreasing in DK, LT and UK, stable in BY, EE, LV and NO, fluctuating in CH, DE, FR, NL, PL, SI and unknown in BE, IE, SE (European Topic Centre on Biological Diversity, in prep., BirdLife International et al., in prep.).
- T6983 - This trend is based on two major Baltic-wide surveys (see details in Dagys 2017). However, both the short- and long-term wintering trends are fairly uncertain based on the national trend estimates reported by BIrdLife International (2015). The short-term (2000-2012) national wintering trends were considered to be stable in most countries except LT, DK and GB (declining), SE, NO, IE (unknown). The long-term (1980-2012) wintering trends were considered to be negative in LV, LT, DE, DK and FR, stable in EE, NL, BE and unknown in PL, SE, NO and IE. Flyway level analyses of trends in wintering numbers based on IWC data (Wetlands International 2017, HELCOM 2017) also show declines between the early 1990s and the 2000s, but they also suggest a recovery from the second half of the 2000s. However, the JWGBIRD (Markones in litt) expressed doubts concerning the representativity of land-based counts and the reassessment of the wintering trend is pending until the availabilty of the 2016 January Coordinated Baltic Seaduck Survey. Trends in breeding numbers also difficult to assess but the reported long-term breeding trends (1980-2012) were thought to be negative in all countries, while the short-term trend (2000-2012) was negative in all countries except SE, where stable, and RU, where unknown (BirdLife International 2015). Considering the uncertainties concerning the most recent trends (i.e. 2006-2015), the long-term trend is reported.
Copyright Wetlands International 2012 Citation: Wetlands International (). "Waterbird Population Estimates" . Retrieved from wpe.wetlands.org on