|Scientific name||Melanitta nigra||Common name||Common Scoter|
|Population name||W Siberia & N Europe/W Europe & NW Africa|
|Breeding range||W Siberia, Scandinavia, Iceland, Scotland, Ireland||Non-breeding range||Baltic, E Atlantic S to Mauritania|
|Red List Category||Least Concern|
|Ramsar regions||Africa Asia Europe|
|Notes||Melanitta nigra and americana are now generally considered as different species.|
|Publication||Start year||End year||Minimum||Maximum||Estimate quality||Notes||References||Actions|
|WPE 1||0||0||800,000||800,000||No quality assessment||[R532]|
|WPE 2||0||0||1,600,000||1,600,000||No quality assessment||[R531]|
|WPE 3||0||0||1,600,000||1,600,000||No quality assessment||[R531]|
|WPE 4||0||0||1,600,000||1,600,000||No quality assessment||[R531]|
|WPE 5||1993||1993||550,000||550,000||Expert opinion||[R889]|
|CSR 5||1993||1993||550,000||550,000||Expert opinion||[R889]|
|CSR 4||1993||1993||550,000||550,000||Expert opinion||[R889]|
|CSR 6||2004||2013||600,000||1,200,000||Expert opinion||[S8562]||[R1362] [R1361] [R889] [R1494] [R1412]|
|CSR 7||1996||2013||687,000||815,000||Expert opinion||[S9064]||[R1549] [R1591]|
|Publication||Start year||End year||Trend||Trend quality||Notes||References||Actions|
|WPE 1||0||0||STA||No quality assessment||[R532]|
|WPE 2||0||0||STA||No quality assessment||[R532]|
|WPE 3||0||0||STA||No quality assessment||[R532]|
|WPE 4||0||0||STA||No quality assessment||[R532]|
|CSR 6||2000||2012||STA?||Poor||[T6555]||[R1362] [R1361] [R1381] [R880]|
|CSR 7||2000||2015||STA/INC?||Poor||[T6963]||[R1549] [R1583]|
Population 1% level
|CSR 5||-1||-1||Not Set|
|CSR 4||-1||-1||Not Set|
|CSR 6||-1||-1||Not Set|
- R532 - Pirot, J-Y., Laursen, K., Madsen, J. and Monval, J-Y. 1989. Population estimates of swans, geese, ducks, and Eurasian Coot (Fulica atra) in the Western Palearctic and Sahelian Africa. In: Boyd, H. and Pirot, J.-Y. (eds.). Flyways and Reserves Networks. IWRB Spec. Publ. No.9. Slimbridge, UK
- R531 - Pihl, S. and Laursen, K. 1996. A reestimation of Western Palearctic seaduck numbers from the Baltic Sea 1993 Survey. In: Proceedings of Anatidae 2000. M. Birkan, J. van Vessem, P. Havet, J. Madsen, B. Trolliet, and M. Moser (eds.). Gibier Faune Sauvage, G
- R889 - Skov, H., Hein?nen, S., ?ydelis, R, Bellebaum, J., Bzoma, S., Dagys, M., Durinck, J., Garthe, S., Grishanov, G., Hario, M., Kieckbusch, J.K., Kube, J., Kuresoo, A., Larsson, K., Luigujoe, L., Meissner, W., Nehls, H.W., Nilsson, L., Petersen, I.K., Roos, M.M., Pihl, S., Sonntag, N. Stock, A. and A. Stipniece. 2011. Waterbird populations and pressures in the Baltic Sea. TemaNord 2010: XX. Nordic Council of Ministers, Copenhagen.
- R1362 - European Topic Centre on Biological Diversity (in prep) Population and trend data provided by the EU Member States in the frame of their reporting under Article 12 of the EU Birds Directive. Online fact sheets. European Topic Centre on Biological Diversity, Paris. URL: http://bd.eionet.europa.eu/activities/Reporting/Article_12/Reports_2013/Member_State_Deliveries. Accessed on 31 July 2014.
- R1361 - BirdLife International, BTO, EBCC, CSO, IUCN, RSPB, SOVON, Wetlands International (in prep) Population and trend data provided to the European Red List of Birds Project funded by the European Commission. Digital dataset. BirdLife International, Cambridge, UK. Accessed on 31 July 2014.
- R1494 - Pedersen, I-K. in litt. 2014.
- R1412 - Wetlands International 2014. International Waterbird Census Count Totals 2010 - 2013: African-Eurasian region. Online dataset. URL: http://www.wetlands.org/LinkClick.aspx?fileticket=0YKYRi11%2f0k%3d&tabid=3044
- R1381 - Nagy, S., Flink, S., Langendoen, T. (2014) Waterbird trends 1988-2012: Results of trend analyses of data from the International Waterbird Census in the African-Eurasian Flyway. Wetlands International, Ede.
- R880 - Hario, M., Rintala, J. and Nordenswan, G. 2009: Allin aallonpohjat It?merell? ? taustalla ?ljyvahingot, sopulisyklit vai mets?stys? ? Suomen Riista 55: 83?96. (in Finnish with English summary)
- R1549 - BirdLife International 2015. European Red List of Birds. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities. http://datazone.birdlife.org/info/euroredlist
- R1591 - Wetlands International. 2017. Draft species count totals by country for the period 2013 - 2017. URL: http://iwc.wetlands.org/index.php/nattotals
- R1583 - HELCOM (2017). Abundance of waterbirds in the wintering season. HELCOM core indicator report. URL: http://helcom.fi/Core%20Indicators/Abundance%20of%20waterbirds%20in%20wintering%20season_HELCOM%20core%20indicator%20-%20HOLAS%20II%20component.pdf
- T6156 - Skov et al. 2011. 410,000 in Baltic Sea 2007-2009. Over 75% of this population occurred in the Baltic in the 1990s and this implies a 66% decline since the last comprehensive survey assuming a similar current distribution.
- T3753 - 899. 410,000 in Baltic Sea 2007-2009. Over 75% of this population occurred in the Baltic in the 1990s and this implies a 66% decline since the last comprehensive survey assuming a similar current distribution.
- S8562 - National estimates of wintering numbers across Europe add up to 681,599-804,365 individuals (European Topic Centre on Biological Diversity, in prep., BirdLife International et al., in prep.). Skov et al (2011) estimated the numbers at 412,000 individuals in the Baltic. C. 142,000-219,000 individuals in PT, ES, FR, UK, IE, BE, NL and NO. Further 5,000-10,000 individuals off Morocco (Wetlands International, 2014). Adding the lower value to the total for the Baltic is close to the total estimate of 550,000, but it is possible that the population is somewhat larger. European breeding population estimates add up to 107,492-131,994 pairs, i.e. 320,000-400,000 individuals (European Topic Centre on Biological Diversity, in prep., BirdLife International et al., in prep.), but this does not inlude birds breeding in W Siberia. Petersen (in litt. 2014) argue that the population could be up to 1.2 million birds based on simultaneous counts from Germany and Denmark.
- T6555 - European breeding numbers indicate a stable population both in the short- and the long-term (2000-2012: 0.9899-1.0103, 1980-2012: 0.9971-1.0035). Overall trend emerging from national trend estimates for wintering birds show similar trend (2000-2012: 0.9995-1.0054, 1980-2012: 0.9859-1.0207) with decreasing trend reported only from the NL, increasing in DE, DK and the UK, stable in EE, ES, GIB, LT, LV, NO and PT, fluctuating in FR, IE, PL and SI and unknown in BE, BG, SE and TR (European Topic Centre on Biological Diversity, in prep., BirdLife International et al., in prep.). Mostly shore based IWC counts indicate a decreasing trend, with rapid recovery from 2009, but these can be influenced by the distribution of birds. Spring migration statistics show an increasing trend until the late 1990s after which a slight decrease (Hario et al. 2009).
- S9064 - BirdLife International (2015) estimated 682,000 - 805,000 individuals wintering in Europe. 5,000 - 10,000 individuals can be also added for Morocco (Wetlands International 2017). Petersen (in litt. 2014) has argued that the population could be up to 1.2 million birds based on simultaneous counts from Germany and Denmark, but this should be first confirmed by the analysis of the results of the Januar 2016 Coordinated Baltic Seaduck Survey.
- T6963 - The European breeding trend is unknown in the short-term because the trend of the large RU population (93%) is unknown. The long-term trend is stable. The short-term trend based on national trends in wintering numbers is increasing and the long-term trend is unknown or fluctuating for most countries except BE, LV and ES - all with small populations, thus cannot be assessed (BirdLIfe International 2015). HELCOM (2017) reported increasing trend both for the long- and the short-term, but the JWGBIRD (Markones in litt) expressed doubts concerning the representativity of land-based counts and reassessment of the trend is pending until the availabilty of the 2016 January Coordinated Baltic Seaduck Survey. Wetlands International (2017) reported an uncertain trend.
Copyright Wetlands International 2012 Citation: Wetlands International (). "Waterbird Population Estimates" . Retrieved from wpe.wetlands.org on