Population information

Order name Anseriformes
Family name Anatidae
Scientific name Aythya australis Common name Hardhead
Population name australis
Breeding range SW, C, E & N Australia Non-breeding range Australia including Tasmania
Red List Category Least Concern
Ramsar regions Oceania

Conservation Framework

Conservation framework Notes
No conservation frameworks

Population size

Publication Start year End year Minimum Maximum Estimate quality Notes References Actions
WPE 1 0 0 100,000 1,000,000 [R430]
WPE 2 0 0 100,000 1,000,000 [R430]
WPE 3 0 0 100,000 1,000,000 [R430]
WPE 4 0 0 100,000 1,000,000 [R430]
WPE 5 1986 2011 100,000 1,000,000 Best guess [S8104] [R1085] [R1102] [R1112] [R1148] [R1149]

Population trends

Publication Start year End year Trend Trend quality Notes References Actions
WPE 1 1972 1992 STA [R214]
WPE 2 1980 1990 STA [R430]
WPE 3 1980 1990 STA [R430]
WPE 4 1990 2000 FLU [R341]
WPE 5 1982 2011 FLU Poor [T6111] [R1101]

Population 1% level

Publication Yearset 1 percent Note
WPE 1 0 -1
WPE 2 0 -1
WPE 3 2002 10000
WPE 4 2006 10000
WPE 5 2012 10000


  • R430 - Marchant, S.M. and Higgins, P.J. 1990. Handbook of Australian, New Zealand and Antarctic Birds. Volume 1: Ratites to Ducks. Oxford University Press, Melbourne, Australia.
  • R214 - Ellis-Joseph, S., Hewston, N. and Green, A. (compilers). 1992. Global Waterfowl Conservation Assessment and Management Plan: First Review Draft. Report by the IUCN Captive Breeding Specialist Group and The Wildfowl and Wetlands Trust. 1992. 77 pp.
  • R341 - Jaensch, Roger, August 2005. Detailed data and notes on numbers and distribution of waterbirds in Australia, updated from Jaensch, 2003, and derived from more than 90 Australian sources including Wetlands International, Birds Australia and Jaensch, 2003,
  • R1085 - Halse, S.A., Pearson, G.B., Hassell, C., Collins, P., Scanlon, M.D. and Minton, C.D.T. 2005. Mandora Marsh, north-western Australia, an arid-zone wetland maintaining continental populations of waterbirds. Emu 105: 115?125.
  • R1102 - Jaensch, R.P. and Vervest, R.M. 1990. Waterbirds at remote wetlands in Western Australia, 1986-8. Part one: Lake Argyle and Lake Gregory. RAOU Report 32, Perth. 25 pp.
  • R1112 - Kingsford, R.T., Porter, J.L. and Halse, S.A. 2012. National waterbird assessment. Waterlines report, National Water Commission, Canberra. Available online at http://nwc.gov.au/publications/waterlines/74
  • R1148 - Porter, J.L. and Kingsford, R.T. 2011. Aerial Survey of Wetland Birds in Eastern Australia - October 2011. Annual Summary Report, Australian Wetlands and Rivers Centre, University of New South Wales. 29 pp. Also available online at http://www.wetrivers.unsw.edu.au/wp-content/uploads/2011/12/Eastern-Australia_waterbird-aerial-survey_2011.pdf
  • R1149 - Reid, J.R.W., Kingsford, R.T. and Jaensch, R.P. 2009. Waterbird Surveys in the Channel Country Floodplain Wetlands, Autumn 2009. Report by Australian National University, Canberra, University of New South Wales, Sydney, and Wetlands International, Oceania, Brisbane, for the Australian Government Department of Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. 81 pp. Also available online at http://www.lebmf.gov.au/publications/pubs/waterbirds-report.pdf
  • R1101 - Jaensch, R. April 2012. Detailed data and notes on numbers and trends of waterbirds in Australia and other parts of the Oceania region, in a spreadsheet prepared for Wetlands International - Oceania for the 5th edition of WPE.


  • S8104 - Estimate based on weighting of national survey result to allow for likely undercounting on deepwater lake refuges, and takes into account large post-flood aggregations recorded from W, N and C Australia over past 25 years.
  • T6111 - Some evidence of habitat-related decline in E Australia but overall trend considered to be fluctuating.

Copyright Wetlands International 2012

Citation: Wetlands International (). "Waterbird Population Estimates" . Retrieved from wpe.wetlands.org on