Population information

Order name Anseriformes
Family name Anatidae
Scientific name Anas platyrhynchos Common name Mallard
Population name platyrhynchos, North-west Europe
Breeding range N Europe Non-breeding range NW Europe E to the Baltic
Red List Category Least Concern
Ramsar regions Europe
Notes

Conservation Framework

Conservation framework Notes
AEWA
EUBD
Note:

Population size

Publication Start year End year Minimum Maximum Estimate quality Notes References Actions
WPE 1 0 0 5,000,000 5,000,000 [R456]
WPE 2 0 0 5,000,000 5,000,000 [R456]
WPE 4 1995 1996 4,500,000 4,500,000 [R181]
WPE 3 1995 1996 4,500,000 4,500,000 [R181]
WPE 5 1995 1996 4,500,000 4,500,000 Expert opinion [R181]
CSR 4 1995 1996 4,500,000 4,500,000 Expert opinion [R181]
CSR 5 1995 1996 4,500,000 4,500,000 Expert opinion [R181]
CSR 6 2000 2012 4,500,000 4,500,000 Expert opinion [S8529] [R181] [R456] [R1365] [R1362] [R1361] [R63]

Population trends

Publication Start year End year Trend Trend quality Notes References Actions
WPE 1 1967 1986 STA [R456]
WPE 2 1967 1986 STA [R456]
WPE 4 1974 2002 DEC/STA [T3366] [R692]
WPE 3 1987 1996 DEC [R181]
WPE 5 1997 2007 Unknown No idea [T5997]
CSR 4 1974 2005 DEC Poor
CSR 5 1997 2007 Unknown Poor [T3369] [R859] [R888]
CSR 6 2003 2012 STA Poor [T6525] [R1381] [R1362] [R1437] [R1361] [R1480]

Population 1% level

Publication Yearset 1 percent Note
WPE 1 1994 20000
WPE 2 1997 20000
WPE 4 2006 20000
WPE 3 2002 20000
WPE 5 2012 45000
CSR 4 0 -1
CSR 5 0 -1
CSR 6 0 -1

References

  • R456 - Monval, J-Y. and Pirot, J-Y. 1989. Results of the IWRB International Waterfowl Census 1967-1986. IWRB Spec. Publ. No. 8. Slimbridge, UK.
  • R181 - Delany, S.N., Reyes, C. Hubert, E., Pihl, S., Rees, E., Haanstra, L., and van Strien, A. 1999. Results from the International Waterbird Census in the Western Palearctic and Southwest Asia 1995 and 1996.
  • R692 - Wetlands International, International Waterbird Census, unpublished data, 2005. See: http://www.wetlands.org/listmenu.aspx?id=56f39008-f9a9-4569-92c1-a0457e95eeaf
  • R859 - EBCC PECBMS data accessed March 2011: http://www.ebcc.info/index.php?ID=387
  • R888 - Wetlands International, 2012. Results of trend analysis undertaken for CSR5 2012, presented in Annex 4. http://www.unep-aewa.org/meetings/en/mop/mop5_docs/pdf/mop5_14_csr5.pdf
  • R1365 - Wetlands International, International Waterbird Census, unpublished data, 2014.
  • R1362 - European Topic Centre on Biological Diversity (in prep) Population and trend data provided by the EU Member States in the frame of their reporting under Article 12 of the EU Birds Directive. Online fact sheets. European Topic Centre on Biological Diversity, Paris. URL: http://bd.eionet.europa.eu/activities/Reporting/Article_12/Reports_2013/Member_State_Deliveries. Accessed on 31 July 2014.
  • R1361 - BirdLife International, BTO, EBCC, CSO, IUCN, RSPB, SOVON, Wetlands International (in prep) Population and trend data provided to the European Red List of Birds Project funded by the European Commission. Digital dataset. BirdLife International, Cambridge, UK. Accessed on 31 July 2014.
  • R63 - BirdLife International (2004)b. Birds in Europe, population estimates, trends and conservation status. Cambridge, UK: BirdLife International. (BirdLife Conservation Series No. 12).
  • R1381 - Nagy, S., Flink, S., Langendoen, T. (2014) Waterbird trends 1988-2012: Results of trend analyses of data from the International Waterbird Census in the African-Eurasian Flyway. Wetlands International, Ede.
  • R1437 - Dalby, L., Söderquist, P., Christensen, T. K., Clausen, P., Einarsson, Á., Elmberg, J., ... & Lindström, Å. (2013). The status of the Nordic populations of the Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) in a changing world. Ornis Fennica, 90(1), 2.
  • R1480 - Christensen, T.K. & Fox, A.D. 2014. Changes in age and sex rations amongst samples of hunter-shot wings from common duck species in Denmark 1982-2010. European Journal of Wildlife Research 60:303-312.
  • R1548 - Wetlands International (2017) Flyway trend analyses based on data from the African-Eurasian Waterbird Census from the period of 1967-2015. Ede, The Netherlands: Wetlands International. Temporary URL: https://www.dropbox.com/sh/r76f4eyuhzu65co/AADzzQkhySsUDsmwFJUcHs91a?dl=0

Notes

  • T3366 - 700: Population in NW Europe has recovered from low point in 1997, but overall trends still of moderate decrease, both in the long term (1974-2002) and medium term (1993-2002). Increases around the Baltic may have compensated to a small extent for these declines (183).
  • T5997 - Wetlands International 2012. Trend 1983-2007: -0.6% p.a. ? Decline. EBCC/PECBMS 2011: Moderate increase in Europe (not significant >5% p.a.) 1980-2008. Noted that this may have been influenced by releases by hunters.
  • T3369 - 898. Trend 1983-2007: -0.6% p.a. – Decline. 869: Moderate increase in Europe (not significantly >5% p.a.) 1980-2008. Noted that this may have been influenced by releases by hunters.
  • S8529 - The current population estimate of 4,500,000 individuals is based on (Delany et al., 1999) and represents a downward revision of the earlier estimate of 5,000,000 individuals (Monval & Pirot, 1989). However, the mean of the annual IWC count totals was only 1,413,083 individuals for 2008-2012. The sum of the national estimates of wintering birds is 2,631,645-2,894,712 individuals in the above-mentioned countries (Wetlands International, 2014). However, these totals include various degrees of extrapolations (European Topic Centre on Biological Diversity, in prep., BirdLife International et al., in prep.). The size of the breeding population estimated in the EU Member States in N Europe is 1,336,550-2,151,610 pairs (European Topic Centre on Biological Diversity, in prep., BirdLife International et al., in prep.) and an additional 50,000-85,000 is estimated for NO and IS (BirdLife International, 2004). This yields an estimate for (part of) the breeding population of 4,100,000-6,700,000 individuals.
  • T6525 - The trend analysis based on the IWC data shows a significant long-term decline and moderate decline in the short-term. The overall trend derived from the national estimates of wintering birds from IS, IE, UK, FR (70%), BE, NL, LU, DE, DK, PL, NO, SE, FI, EE, LV, LT also shows similar patterns (2000-2012: 0.9706-0.9944, 1980-2012: 0.9877-0.9947, European Topic Centre on Biological Diversity, in prep., BirdLife International et al., in prep.). However, Dalby et al. (2013) showed that the apparent decline is likely to be due that part of the population is wintering in areas not covered well by the IWC in NE Europe. Christensen & Fox (2014) have found also no significant decline in proportion of young birds.



Copyright Wetlands International 2012

Citation: Wetlands International (). "Waterbird Population Estimates" . Retrieved from wpe.wetlands.org on