Population information

Order name Anseriformes
Family name Anatidae
Scientific name Cygnus cygnus Common name Whooper Swan
Population name North-west Mainland Europe
Breeding range Scandinavia, N European Russia Non-breeding range NW & Central Mainland Europe
Red List Category Least Concern
Ramsar regions Europe
Notes

Conservation Framework

Conservation framework Notes
AEWA
EUBD
Note:

Population size

Publication Start year End year Minimum Maximum Estimate quality Notes References Actions
WPE 1 0 0 25,000 25,000 [R456]
WPE 4 0 0 59,000 59,000 [R398]
WPE 2 1990 1995 40,000 40,000 [R578]
WPE 3 0 0 59,000 59,000 [R398]
WPE 5 1995 1995 59,000 59,000 Census based [R398]
CSR 4 1995 1995 59,000 59,000 Census based [R398]
CSR 5 1995 1995 59,000 59,000 Census based [R398]
CSR 6 2000 2012 89,900 90,000 Census based [S8474] [R1366] [R1362] [R1361] [R398]

Population trends

Publication Start year End year Trend Trend quality Notes References Actions
WPE 1 1967 1986 INC [R456]
WPE 4 1973 2002 INC [T2130] [R692]
WPE 2 1974 1994 INC [R578]
WPE 3 1974 1994 INC [R578]
WPE 5 1995 2005 INC Good [T5310] [R888]
CSR 4 1995 2005 INC Good
CSR 5 1995 2005 INC Good [T2133] [R888]
CSR 6 2003 2012 INC Reasonable [T6471] [R1381] [R1362] [R1361]

Population 1% level

Publication Yearset 1 percent Note
WPE 1 1994 250
WPE 4 2006 590
WPE 2 1997 400
WPE 3 2002 590
WPE 5 2012 590
CSR 4 0 -1
CSR 5 0 -1
CSR 6 0 -1

References

  • R456 - Monval, J-Y. and Pirot, J-Y. 1989. Results of the IWRB International Waterfowl Census 1967-1986. IWRB Spec. Publ. No. 8. Slimbridge, UK.
  • R398 - Laubeck, B., Nilsson, L., Wieloch, M., Koffijberg, K., Sudfelt, C. and Follestad, A. (1999). Distribution, number and habitat choice of the Northwest European Whooper Swan (Cygnus cygnus) population: results of an international Whooper Swan census, January 1995. Vogelwelt 120: 141-154
  • R692 - Wetlands International, International Waterbird Census, unpublished data, 2005. See: http://www.wetlands.org/listmenu.aspx?id=56f39008-f9a9-4569-92c1-a0457e95eeaf
  • R578 - Scott, D.A. and Rose, P.M. 1996. Atlas of Anatidae populations in Africa and western Eurasia. Wetlands International Publication No. 41. Wetlands International, Wageningen, NL. 336 pp.
  • R888 - Wetlands International, 2012. Results of trend analysis undertaken for CSR5 2012, presented in Annex 4. http://www.unep-aewa.org/meetings/en/mop/mop5_docs/pdf/mop5_14_csr5.pdf
  • R1366 - Wahl, J. & A. Degen (2009): Rastbestand und Verbreitung von Singschwan Cygnus cygnus und Zwergschwan C. bewickii im Winter 2004/05 in Deutschland. Vogelwelt 130: 1–24.
  • R1362 - European Topic Centre on Biological Diversity (in prep) Population and trend data provided by the EU Member States in the frame of their reporting under Article 12 of the EU Birds Directive. Online fact sheets. European Topic Centre on Biological Diversity, Paris. URL: http://bd.eionet.europa.eu/activities/Reporting/Article_12/Reports_2013/Member_State_Deliveries. Accessed on 31 July 2014.
  • R1361 - BirdLife International, BTO, EBCC, CSO, IUCN, RSPB, SOVON, Wetlands International (in prep) Population and trend data provided to the European Red List of Birds Project funded by the European Commission. Digital dataset. BirdLife International, Cambridge, UK. Accessed on 31 July 2014.
  • R1381 - Nagy, S., Flink, S., Langendoen, T. (2014) Waterbird trends 1988-2012: Results of trend analyses of data from the International Waterbird Census in the African-Eurasian Flyway. Wetlands International, Ede.
  • R1563 - Rees, E. (in litt) 10 July 2017 to S. Nagy summarising the preliminary results of the 2015 International Swan Census
  • R1549 - BirdLife International 2015. European Red List of Birds. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities. http://datazone.birdlife.org/info/euroredlist
  • R1548 - Wetlands International (2017) Flyway trend analyses based on data from the African-Eurasian Waterbird Census from the period of 1967-2015. Ede, The Netherlands: Wetlands International. Temporary URL: https://www.dropbox.com/sh/r76f4eyuhzu65co/AADzzQkhySsUDsmwFJUcHs91a?dl=0

Notes

  • T2130 - 700: Long-term increase levelled off in late 1990s.
  • T5310 - Wetlands International 2012. Trend 1983-2005: +3.2% p.a. ? Increase.
  • T2133 - 898. Trend 1983-2005: +3.2% p.a. – Increase.
  • S8474 - The average annual IWC count total was 39,423 individuals during the period of 2008-2012. With adjusments for missing counts, it almost reached 50,000 individuals. However, a large proportion of the population is not counted during the IWC because they occur on agricultural fields (Laubek et al., 1999). The International Swan Census in 2005 found 78,057 individuals and based on this Wahl & Degen (2009) estimated the population size at 89,900-90,000 individuals. The The national estimates for wintering birds from AT, BE, DE, DK, EE, FR, NL, PL and SE add up to 64,257-87,666 individuals and 13,921-19,101 pairs breed in FI, SE, DE, EE, LT, LV, PL and HU (European Topic Centre on Biological Diversity, in prep., BirdLife International et al., in prep.). This yields an estimate of 41,800-57,000 inidivduals (European Topic Centre on Biological Diversity, in prep.; BirdLife International et al, in prep.), but this does not include a significant part of the population that breeds in RU. BirdLife Finland estimated that 70,000 individuals staged in autumn 2014 in Finland based on 57,600 individuals counted (Lehikoinen in litt., 2014)
  • T6471 - Trend based on analysis of IWC data is 1.0298±0.0015 for 1988-2012 and 1.0222±0.0053 for 2003-2012 (Nagy et al., 2014). The large increase is also apparent in the overall trend derived from the national trend estimates for the wintering birds (2000-2012: 0.9941-1.0171, 1980-2012: 1.0207-1.0334) and for the breeding birds as well (2000-2012: 1.0363-1.0738, 1980-2012: 1.0661-1.0802; European Topic Centre on Biological Diversity, in prep.; BirdLife International et al., in prep.).
  • S8869 - More than120,000 (based on >30,000 estimated for Germany) in addition to a total of 90,000 birds counted.
  • T6876 - Trend based on breeding data shows continued increase albeith the short-term trend indicates a slower increase than the long-term one (BirdLife International 2015). This is similar to the results of the trend analysis based on IWC counts (Wetlands International 2017), which shows stablisation of numbers between 2006 and 2015. The results of the 2015 International Swan Census are not yet available at the time of writing.



Copyright Wetlands International 2012

Citation: Wetlands International (). "Waterbird Population Estimates" . Retrieved from wpe.wetlands.org on