Population information

Order name Anseriformes
Family name Anatidae
Scientific name Cygnus olor Common name Mute Swan
Population name North-west Mainland & Central Europe
Breeding range NW Mainland & Central Europe Non-breeding range
Red List Category Least Concern
Ramsar regions Europe
Notes These populations were treated as a single larger population WPE1. (WPE2)

Conservation Framework

Conservation framework Notes
AEWA
EUBD
Note:

Population size

Publication Start year End year Minimum Maximum Estimate quality Notes References Actions
WPE 4 0 0 250,000 250,000 [S3234] [R692]
WPE 2 1990 1995 210,000 210,000 [R578]
WPE 3 1990 1995 250,000 250,000 [R578]
WPE 5 2004 2004 250,000 250,000 Expert opinion [R692]
CSR 4 2004 2004 250,000 250,000 Expert opinion [R692]
CSR 5 2004 2004 250,000 250,000 Expert opinion [R692]
CSR 6 2005 2012 166,000 232,000 Expert opinion [S8235] [R1362] [R1361] [R1365]

Population trends

Publication Start year End year Trend Trend quality Notes References Actions
WPE 4 1973 2002 INC [T1980] [R692]
WPE 2 1983 1993 INC [R578]
WPE 3 1987 1996 INC [R181]
WPE 5 1997 2007 INC Reasonable [T3962] [R888]
CSR 4 1974 2005 INC Reasonable [T1981] [R904]
CSR 5 1997 2007 INC Reasonable [T1984] [R888]
CSR 6 2003 2012 INC Reasonable [T6236] [R1381] [R1362] [R1361]

Population 1% level

Publication Yearset 1 percent Note
WPE 4 2006 2500
WPE 2 1997 2100
WPE 3 2002 2500
WPE 5 2012 2500
CSR 4 0 -1
CSR 5 0 -1
CSR 6 0 -1

References

  • R692 - Wetlands International, International Waterbird Census, unpublished data, 2005. See: http://www.wetlands.org/listmenu.aspx?id=56f39008-f9a9-4569-92c1-a0457e95eeaf
  • R578 - Scott, D.A. and Rose, P.M. 1996. Atlas of Anatidae populations in Africa and western Eurasia. Wetlands International Publication No. 41. Wetlands International, Wageningen, NL. 336 pp.
  • R181 - Delany, S.N., Reyes, C. Hubert, E., Pihl, S., Rees, E., Haanstra, L., and van Strien, A. 1999. Results from the International Waterbird Census in the Western Palearctic and Southwest Asia 1995 and 1996.
  • R888 - Wetlands International, 2012. Results of trend analysis undertaken for CSR5 2012, presented in Annex 4. http://www.unep-aewa.org/meetings/en/mop/mop5_docs/pdf/mop5_14_csr5.pdf
  • R904 - Wetlands International. November 2007. Unpublished population trend analysis based on the IWC database of January counts in Europe using TRIM software.
  • R1362 - European Topic Centre on Biological Diversity (in prep) Population and trend data provided by the EU Member States in the frame of their reporting under Article 12 of the EU Birds Directive. Online fact sheets. European Topic Centre on Biological Diversity, Paris. URL: http://bd.eionet.europa.eu/activities/Reporting/Article_12/Reports_2013/Member_State_Deliveries. Accessed on 31 July 2014.
  • R1361 - BirdLife International, BTO, EBCC, CSO, IUCN, RSPB, SOVON, Wetlands International (in prep) Population and trend data provided to the European Red List of Birds Project funded by the European Commission. Digital dataset. BirdLife International, Cambridge, UK. Accessed on 31 July 2014.
  • R1365 - Wetlands International, International Waterbird Census, unpublished data, 2014.
  • R1381 - Nagy, S., Flink, S., Langendoen, T. (2014) Waterbird trends 1988-2012: Results of trend analyses of data from the International Waterbird Census in the African-Eurasian Flyway. Wetlands International, Ede.
  • R1549 - BirdLife International 2015. European Red List of Birds. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities. http://datazone.birdlife.org/info/euroredlist
  • R1548 - Wetlands International (2017) Flyway trend analyses based on data from the African-Eurasian Waterbird Census from the period of 1967-2015. Ede, The Netherlands: Wetlands International. Temporary URL: https://www.dropbox.com/sh/r76f4eyuhzu65co/AADzzQkhySsUDsmwFJUcHs91a?dl=0

Notes

  • S3234 - 700: Over 180,000 counted in early 2000s. The North American population is introduced and has not been included.
  • T1980 - 700: Population in Baltic region apparently decreasing since 1992.
  • T3962 - Wetlands International 2012. Trend 1983-2007: +2.9% p.a. ? Increase.
  • T1981 - 914. Increasing strongly in NW & Central Europe; decreasing in Baltic/Nordic.
  • T1984 - 898. Trend 1983-2007: +2.9% p.a. – Increase.
  • S8235 - Total of national breeding population estimates for AT, BE, BY, CH, DE, DK, EE, FI, FR, HU, IT, LT, LU, LV, NL, NO, PL, SE, SI, SK in the EU Birds Directive Art. 12 reporting process is 55,336-77,445 pairs. Estimates for the wintering season was 166,536-197,256 individuals with some countries holding significant wintering populations (e.g. SE) not included. Annual IWC count totals between 2003 and 2012 ranged between 97,374 (2012) and 180,992 (2009).
  • T6236 - Trend 2003-2012: +0.27±0.23% p.a. and for 1988-2012: 2.05±0.07% p.a. increase (Nagy et al., 2014). Short-term trend according to the EU Birds Directive Art. 12 reporting for breeding populations is 8-12% increase, and for wintering populations 7-8% increase. Long-trend for breeding populations 59-148% increase and for wintering birds: 14-32% increase.
  • S8866 - 57,821 - 80,972 pairs in AT, BA, BE, BY, CH, CZ, DE, DK, EE, FI, FR, HR, HU, IT, LI, LT, LU, LV, NL, NO, PL, SE, SI & SK
  • T6872 - Trends based on both breeding (BirdLife International 2015) and wintering (Wetlands International 2017) data show that the rate of decline has slowed down or even stabilised.



Copyright Wetlands International 2012

Citation: Wetlands International (). "Waterbird Population Estimates" . Retrieved from wpe.wetlands.org on