Population information

Order name Anseriformes
Family name Anatidae
Scientific name Stictonetta naevosa Common name Freckled Duck
Population name E Australia
Breeding range E Australia (not Tasmania) Non-breeding range
Red List Category Least Concern
Ramsar regions Oceania
Notes These populations were treated as a single larger population WPE1.

Conservation Framework

Conservation framework Notes
No conservation frameworks

Population size

Publication Start year End year Minimum Maximum Estimate quality Notes References Actions
WPE 3 1999 1999 19,000 19,000 No quality assessment [R249]
WPE 4 2003 2003 10,000 25,000 No quality assessment [S3225] [R341]
WPE 2 0 0 -1 -1 No quality assessment
WPE 5 1999 2010 10,000 25,000 Best guess [R267] [R341] [R1148]

Population trends

Publication Start year End year Trend Trend quality Notes References Actions
WPE 3 1978 1990 FLU No quality assessment [R249]
WPE 4 1978 1990 FLU No quality assessment [R249]
WPE 2 1980 1990 DEC No quality assessment [R115]
WPE 5 1982 2011 FLU Reasonable [T3960] [R1148] [R267]

Population 1% level

Publication Yearset 1 percent Note
WPE 3 2002 190
WPE 4 2006 250
WPE 2 -1 -1 Not Set
WPE 5 2006 250


  • R249 - Garnett, S.T. and Crowley, G.M. 2000. The Action Plan for Australian Birds 2000. Environment Australia, Canberra.
  • R341 - Jaensch, Roger, August 2005. Detailed data and notes on numbers and distribution of waterbirds in Australia, updated from Jaensch, 2003, and derived from more than 90 Australian sources including Wetlands International, Birds Australia and Jaensch, 2003,
  • R115 - Callaghan, D.A. and Green, A.J. 1993. Wildfowl at risk, 1993. Wildfowl 44: 149-169.
  • R267 - Green, A.J. 1992a. The status and conservation of the White-winged Wood Duck (Cairina scutulata). IWRB Special Publication No. 17. Slimbridge, UK. 115 pp.
  • R1148 - Porter, J.L. and Kingsford, R.T. 2011. Aerial Survey of Wetland Birds in Eastern Australia - October 2011. Annual Summary Report, Australian Wetlands and Rivers Centre, University of New South Wales. 29 pp. Also available online at http://www.wetrivers.unsw.edu.au/wp-content/uploads/2011/12/Eastern-Australia_waterbird-aerial-survey_2011.pdf


  • S3225 - Abundance correlated with Southern Oscillation Index (Garnett & Crowley 2002). Population size near upper end of Estimate range. Disperses widely within N and E Australia.
  • T3960 - No recent information but numbers likely declined markedly during major drought period 2000-2009 but recovered substantially during 2010-2012 wet period. Present estimate (class B) retained. Despite some habitat loss, other breeding habitat persists and supports numbers that fluctuate with flood/drought cycles.

Copyright Wetlands International 2012

Citation: Wetlands International (). "Waterbird Population Estimates" . Retrieved from wpe.wetlands.org on