|Scientific name||Oxyura leucocephala||Common name||White-headed Duck|
|Population name||East Mediterranean, Turkey & South-west Asia|
|Breeding range||E Mediterranean, W & SW Asia||Non-breeding range||E Mediterranean, W Black Sea Turkey, Iran|
|Red List Category||Endangered|
|Ramsar regions||Asia Europe|
|CAF Action Plan|
|Publication||Start year||End year||Minimum||Maximum||Estimate quality||Notes||References||Actions|
|WPE 1||1987||1991||17,000||17,000||No quality assessment||[R519]|
|WPE 2||1990||1995||8,000||15,000||No quality assessment||[R578]|
|WPE 3||0||0||5,000||10,000||No quality assessment||[R405]|
|WPE 4||0||0||5,000||10,000||No quality assessment||[R411]|
|WPE 5||2002||2002||5,000||10,000||Expert opinion||[R411]|
|AEWA CSR 4||2002||2002||5,000||10,000||Expert opinion||[R411]|
|AEWA CSR 5||2002||2002||5,000||10,000||Expert opinion||[R411]|
|AEWA CSR 6||2000||2014||5,000||10,000||Expert opinion||[S8451]||[R1441] [R63] [R1362] [R1361] [R1365] [R1510]|
|AEWA CSR 7||2013||2016||18,000||21,000||Expert opinion||[S9052]||[R1569]|
|Publication||Start year||End year||Trend||Trend quality||Notes||References||Actions|
|WPE 1||1977||1991||STA||No quality assessment||[R519]|
|WPE 2||1986||1996||DEC||No quality assessment||[R578]|
|WPE 3||1992||2002||DEC||No quality assessment||[R405]|
|WPE 4||1993||2003||DEC||No quality assessment||[R411]|
|WPE 5||1997||2007||DEC||Reasonable||[T5213]||[R870] [R888]|
|AEWA CSR 4||2000||2005||DEC||Reasonable|
|AEWA CSR 5||1997||2007||DEC||Reasonable||[T1816]||[R870] [R888]|
|AEWA CSR 6||2000||2012||DEC?||Poor||[T6449]||[R1362] [R1381] [R1510]|
|AEWA CSR 7||2006||2015||DEC?||Poor||[R1548]|
Population 1% level
|AEWA CSR 4||-1||-1||Not Set|
|AEWA CSR 5||-1||-1||Not Set|
|AEWA CSR 6||-1||-1||Not Set|
|AEWA CSR 7||2018||200|
- R519 - Perennou, C.P., Mundkur, T. and Scott, D.A. 1994. The Asian Waterfowl Census 1987-1991: distribution and status of Asian waterfowl. IWRB Spec. Publ. No. 24; AWB Spec. Publ. No. 86. Slimbridge, UK and Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
- R578 - Scott, D.A. and Rose, P.M. 1996. Atlas of Anatidae populations in Africa and western Eurasia. Wetlands International Publication No. 41. Wetlands International, Wageningen, NL. 336 pp.
- R405 - Li, David and Taej Mundkur, 2002. Status Overview and Recommendations for the White-headed Duck Central Asian Population. in press.
- R411 - Li, Z.W.D. and Mundkur, T., 2003. Status Overview and Recommendations for Conservation of the White-headed Duck Oxyura leucocephala in Central Asia. Wetlands International Global Series 15, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
- R870 - Murzakhanov, E. and Bazdyrev, A. 2009. Preliminary report of project ?Conservation of whiteheaded duck ?Oxyura leucocephala? in Barabinskay lowland (Russia)? Strizh Ecological Centre.
- R888 - Wetlands International, 2012. Results of trend analysis undertaken for CSR5 2012, presented in Annex 4. http://www.unep-aewa.org/meetings/en/mop/mop5_docs/pdf/mop5_14_csr5.pdf
- R1441 - Boyla, K. in litt., 2014
- R63 - BirdLife International (2004)b. Birds in Europe, population estimates, trends and conservation status. Cambridge, UK: BirdLife International. (BirdLife Conservation Series No. 12).
- R1362 - European Topic Centre on Biological Diversity (in prep) Population and trend data provided by the EU Member States in the frame of their reporting under Article 12 of the EU Birds Directive. Online fact sheets. European Topic Centre on Biological Diversity, Paris. URL: http://bd.eionet.europa.eu/activities/Reporting/Article_12/Reports_2013/Member_State_Deliveries. Accessed on 31 July 2014.
- R1361 - BirdLife International, BTO, EBCC, CSO, IUCN, RSPB, SOVON, Wetlands International (in prep) Population and trend data provided to the European Red List of Birds Project funded by the European Commission. Digital dataset. BirdLife International, Cambridge, UK. Accessed on 31 July 2014.
- R1365 - Wetlands International, International Waterbird Census, unpublished data, 2014.
- R1510 - Green, A. in litt., 2014 4,000 whds in Turkey. TWSG-Forum on 13 November 2014
- R1381 - Nagy, S., Flink, S., Langendoen, T. (2014) Waterbird trends 1988-2012: Results of trend analyses of data from the International Waterbird Census in the African-Eurasian Flyway. Wetlands International, Ede.
- R1569 - Sheldon, R. 2017. Estimates of breeding waterbird populations in Central/SW Asia, The Caucasus and the Arabian Peninsula.
- R1548 - Wetlands International (2017) Flyway trend analyses based on data from the African-Eurasian Waterbird Census from the period of 1967-2015. Ede, The Netherlands: Wetlands International. URL: http://iwc.wetlands.org/index.php/aewatrends
- R1629 - Sheldon, R., Mikander N. & FernÃ¡ndez Orueta, J. (compilers) 2018. International Single Species Action Plan for the Conservation of the White-headed Duck (Oxyura leucocephala). 1st revision. Final draft adopted by the AEWA MOP7. Retrieved from https://www.unep-aewa.org/sites/default/files/document/aewa_mop7_24_draft_rev_cms_aewa_eu_issap_whd_en_1.pdf
- R1619 - Nagy, S. & Langendoen, T. (2020) Flyway trend analyses based on data from the African-Eurasian Waterbird Census from the period of 1967-2018. Online publication. Wetlands International, Wageningen, The Netherlands. URL: http://iwc.test.wetlands.org/index.php/aewatrends8
- R1625 - BirdLife International (in prep) European Red List of Birds. Deliverable to the European Commission (DG Environment) in 2021 under Service Contract ENV.D.3/SER/2018/0018.
- R1628 - Kalyakin, M., Morkovin, A. Voltzit, O., Sklyarenko, S., Urazaliyev, R., Kashkarov, R., Ten, A, Rustamov, E (2020): Breeding population estimates for selected waterbirds in West Siberia and Central Asia. Unpublished reports. Wetlands International & BirdLife International, Wageningen & Cambridge (UK).
- T5213 - Wetlands International 2012. Trend 1986-2007: -5.8% p.a. ? Significant long-term decline. Murzakhanov and Bazdyrev (2009) documented continuing declines at 6 lake systems in Central Asian Russia.
- T1816 - 898. Trend 1986-2007: -5.8% p.a. â€“ Significant long-term decline. 880 documents continuing declines at 6 lake systems in Central Asian Russia.
- S8451 - 300-380 pairs, i.e. 900-1,140 post-breeding individuals, in AM, RU and TR (BirdLife International, 2004). However, the formerly 200-250 pairs-strong population in TR now counts only 100-150 pairs (Boyla, in litt). 55-2,114 individuals winter in BG, RO and CY (European Topic Centre on Biological Diversity, in prep., BirdLife International et al., in prep.). Further 5,260-21,210 wintering individuals are estimated in AL, AZ, GR, TR and UA (BirdLife International, 2004). The average IWC count total was 2,158 individuals during the period of 2008-2012. The sum of the site-level 5-year mean was 3,821 individuals during the same period. There was a high count of 9,622 in 2003 and another one with 8,199 individuals in 2006 (Wetlands International, unpublished data). A. Green (in litt, 2014) reported an observation of 4,000 individuals at Arin Gulu on 20 October 2014.
- T6449 - Data incompletely updated. According to the European Topic Centre on Biological Diversity (in prep.) data the wintering numbers have decreased in BG and RO even in the 2000s. However, there is very little updated trend information from the rest of the range, but see notes under population size.
- S9052 - Revised estimate is based on numbers recorded in Kazakhstan (18,049-20,859 individuals).
- S9165 - Revised estimate is based on numbers recorded in Kazakhstan (18,049-20,859 individuals) on moulting sites (Sheldon, 2017). This tallies well with the 16,950 individuals observed along the Caspian coast in Turkmenistan in January 2019 (Toni Eskelin, in litt). The population size is revised according to Sheldon et al. (2018).
- T7246 - The IWC population trend is uncertain but indicates a declining population in each trend period (Nagy & Langendoen, 2020). However, IWC count data is mostly available from the Eastern Mediterranean and site coverage is less consistent in the eastern part of the range. In the absence of consistent site coverage, it is difficult to ascertain if the observed decline is real or just a redistribution of the population. Although counts have decreased in AZ, IR and TR, they have increased in IL and large numbers were discovered in TM. In the short-term, large declines in the wintering populations in BG, GR and RO, but the population is considered stable in CY, AL, AZ and UA while unknown in GE and RS. The breeding population in European RU has decreased by 20-29% between 2008 and 2018 and also decreased in TR while it is considered fluctuating in AM (BirdLife International, in prep.), increasing in KZ and UZ, uncertain in West Siberia and unknown in TM (Kalyakin et al., 2020). However, other experts have reported a stable population for RU (Sheldon et al., 2018) and the same source also reports stable populations in AM and SY. The long-term national trends are also assessed similarly, but it is well documented that the population has suffered large historic declines (Scott & Rose, 1996).
Copyright Wetlands International 2012 Citation: Wetlands International (). "Waterbird Population Estimates" . Retrieved from wpe.wetlands.org on