Population information

Order name Anseriformes
Family name Anatidae
Scientific name Oxyura leucocephala Common name White-headed Duck
Population name West Mediterranean (Spain & Morocco)
Breeding range Spain, Morocco Non-breeding range
Red List Category Endangered
Ramsar regions Africa Europe
Notes These populations were treated as a single larger population WPE1. (WPE2)

Conservation Framework

Conservation framework Notes
AEWA
EUBD
Note:

Population size

Publication Start year End year Minimum Maximum Estimate quality Notes References Actions
WPE 2 1990 1995 700 700 [R578]
WPE 3 0 0 2,500 2,500 [R633]
WPE 4 0 0 2,500 2,500 [R633]
WPE 5 2001 2001 2,500 2,500 Expert opinion [R633]
CSR 4 2001 2001 2,500 2,500 Expert opinion [R633]
CSR 5 2001 2001 2,500 2,500 Expert opinion [R633]
CSR 6 2006 2012 2,500 3,500 Expert opinion [S8450] [R1362] [R1361] [R1365]

Population trends

Publication Start year End year Trend Trend quality Notes References Actions
WPE 2 1981 1991 INC [R271]
WPE 3 1990 2000 INC [R634]
WPE 4 1990 2000 INC [R634]
WPE 5 1997 2007 INC Reasonable [T5211] [R888]
CSR 4 1990 2000 INC Reasonable
CSR 5 1997 2007 INC Reasonable [T1809] [R888]
CSR 6 2000 2013 STA/INC? Reasonable [T6448] [R1381] [R1362] [R1491]

Population 1% level

Publication Yearset 1 percent Note
WPE 2 1997 7
WPE 3 2002 25
WPE 4 2006 25
WPE 5 2012 25
CSR 4 0 -1
CSR 5 0 -1
CSR 6 0 -1

References

  • R578 - Scott, D.A. and Rose, P.M. 1996. Atlas of Anatidae populations in Africa and western Eurasia. Wetlands International Publication No. 41. Wetlands International, Wageningen, NL. 336 pp.
  • R271 - Green, A.J. and Anstey, S. 1992. The status of the White-headed Duck (Oxyura leucocephala). Bird Conservation International 2: 185-200.
  • R633 - Torres Esquivias, J.A. and Andy Green in litt. June 2002.
  • R634 - Torres, J.A. and Moreno-Arroyo, B. 2000. La recuperation de la Malvasia cabeciblanca (Oxyura leucocephala) en Espana durante el ultimo decenio del siglo XX. Oxyura 10: 69-78.
  • R888 - Wetlands International, 2012. Results of trend analysis undertaken for CSR5 2012, presented in Annex 4. http://www.unep-aewa.org/meetings/en/mop/mop5_docs/pdf/mop5_14_csr5.pdf
  • R1362 - European Topic Centre on Biological Diversity (in prep) Population and trend data provided by the EU Member States in the frame of their reporting under Article 12 of the EU Birds Directive. Online fact sheets. European Topic Centre on Biological Diversity, Paris. URL: http://bd.eionet.europa.eu/activities/Reporting/Article_12/Reports_2013/Member_State_Deliveries. Accessed on 31 July 2014.
  • R1361 - BirdLife International, BTO, EBCC, CSO, IUCN, RSPB, SOVON, Wetlands International (in prep) Population and trend data provided to the European Red List of Birds Project funded by the European Commission. Digital dataset. BirdLife International, Cambridge, UK. Accessed on 31 July 2014.
  • R1365 - Wetlands International, International Waterbird Census, unpublished data, 2014.
  • R1381 - Nagy, S., Flink, S., Langendoen, T. (2014) Waterbird trends 1988-2012: Results of trend analyses of data from the International Waterbird Census in the African-Eurasian Flyway. Wetlands International, Ede.
  • R1491 - CMAOT, 2014. Aves acuáticas de AndalucĂ­a y Marruecos. ConsejerĂ­a de Medio Ambiente y OrdenaciĂłn del Territorio. Junta de AndalucĂ­a. Sevilla. URL: http://www.juntadeandalucia.es/medioambiente/portal_web/web/temas_ambientales/programas_europeos_y_relac_internac/programas_europeos/cooperacion_transfronteriza/espana_fronteras_ext_poctefex/proyectos_ejecucion/transhabitat/proyecto_transhabitat/avances/Aves_acuaticas_baja_ESP.pdf
  • R1549 - BirdLife International 2015. European Red List of Birds. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities. http://datazone.birdlife.org/info/euroredlist
  • R1548 - Wetlands International (2017) Flyway trend analyses based on data from the African-Eurasian Waterbird Census from the period of 1967-2015. Ede, The Netherlands: Wetlands International. Temporary URL: https://www.dropbox.com/sh/r76f4eyuhzu65co/AADzzQkhySsUDsmwFJUcHs91a?dl=0
  • R1586 - Orueta, J.F. (compiler), 2016. First Draft Status Report for White-headed Duck Oxyura leucocephala. Report of the Action A6, Project LIFE EuroSAP. SEO/BirdLife Spain (unpublished report). URL: http://www.trackingactionplans.org/SAPTT/downloadDocuments/openDocument?idDocument=45

Notes

  • T5211 - Wetlands International 2012. Trend 1990-2007: +9.2% p.a. ? Uncertain due to missing counts 2006 and 2007. However, population appears to be stable/increasing between 1999 and 2005.
  • T1809 - 898. Trend 1990-2007: +9.2% p.a. – Uncertain due to missing counts 2006 and 2007. However, population appears to be stable/increasing between 1999 and 2005.
  • S8450 - 201 pairs breeding and 1,562 individuals wintering in ES (European Topic Centre on Biological Diversity, in prep., BirdLife International et al., in prep.). Average of IWC count totals is 2,313 during 2006-2012, with a maximum of 3,056 in 2009. Numbers wintering in Morocco are small: the max. so far was 231 individuals in 2013 (Wetlands International, 2014).
  • T6448 - Trend analysis based on IWC counts suggests a large decline, but only 70 sites are with more more than two positive records in ES, and only one site in MA (Nagy et al., 2014). Stable breeding and wintering numbers reported from ES (European Topic Centre on Biological Diversity, in prep.). Data from Andalusia, that supports over 50% of the population in Spain, even suggest 1.3% p.a. increase for the period of 2004-2013.
  • S9051 - 120-318 pairs breeding and 1,562 individuals wintering in ES (BirdLife International 2015). Numbers wintering in Morocco are smaller: the max. so far was 642 in in 2015 (Wetlands International 2017 based on data from GEPROM).
  • T6978 - IWC trend analysis shows strong long-term fluctuations (Wetlands International 2017).



Copyright Wetlands International 2012

Citation: Wetlands International (). "Waterbird Population Estimates" . Retrieved from wpe.wetlands.org on