|Scientific name||Sternula balaenarum||Common name||Damara Tern|
|Population name||Namibia & South Africa/Atlantic coast to Ghana|
|Breeding range||Namibia to Cape Province South Africa||Non-breeding range||SW South Africa to Nigeria, W to Liberia|
|Red List Category||Least Concern|
|Publication||Start year||End year||Minimum||Maximum||Estimate quality||Notes||References||Actions|
|WPE 3||0||0||14,000||14,000||No quality assessment||[R593]|
|WPE 4||0||0||14,000||14,000||No quality assessment||[R593]|
|WPE 1||0||0||13,000||13,000||No quality assessment||[R591]|
|WPE 2||0||0||14,450||14,450||No quality assessment||[R591]|
|WPE 5||1997||2001||14,000||14,000||Expert opinion||[R196] [R593]|
|AEWA CSR 4||1997||2001||14,000||14,000||Expert opinion||[R196] [R593]|
|AEWA CSR 5||1997||2001||14,000||14,000||Expert opinion||[R196] [R593]|
|AEWA CSR 6||2012||2014||3,000||7,250||Expert opinion||[S8694]||[R1391]|
|AEWA CSR 7||2012||2016||3,000||7,250||Expert opinion||[R1391]|
|AEWA CSR 8||2010||2011||3,400||8,500||Expert opinion||[R1755]|
|Publication||Start year||End year||Trend||Trend quality||Notes||References||Actions|
|WPE 3||1991||2001||STA||No quality assessment||[R190]|
|WPE 4||1991||2001||STA||No quality assessment||[R190]|
|WPE 1||0||0||Unknown||No quality assessment|
|WPE 2||0||0||Unknown||No quality assessment|
|AEWA CSR 4||1991||2001||STA||Poor||[R190]|
|AEWA CSR 5||1991||2001||STA||Poor||[R190]|
|AEWA CSR 6||2003||2014||DEC?||Reasonable||[T6697]||[R1391] [R1359] [R1490]|
|AEWA CSR 7||2003||2014||DEC?||Reasonable||[T7230]||[R1391] [R1552]|
|AEWA CSR 8||2007||2017||STA||Reasonable||[T7641]||[R1726] [R1620] [R1552] [R1619]|
Population 1% level
|AEWA CSR 4||-1||-1||Not Set|
|AEWA CSR 5||-1||-1||Not Set|
|AEWA CSR 7||2018||50|
|AEWA CSR 8||2018||50|
- R593 - Simmons, R.E., Cordes, I. and Braby, R. 1998. Latitudinal trends, population size and habitat preferences of the Damara Tern Sterna balaenarum on Namibia's desert coast. Ibis 140: 439-445.
- R190 - Dodman, T. 2002. Waterbird Population Estimates in Africa. Unpublished report to Wetlands International.
- R591 - Simmons, R. (in press). Distribution and density trends of Damara Terns along Namibia's desert coast. In. Underhill, L.G., Cooper, J. and Simmons, R.E. (eds.). (in press). Southern Birds. Univ. of Cape Town.
- R196 - du Toit, M., Boere, G.C., Cooper, J., Kemper, J., Lenten, B., Simmons, R.S., Whittington, P.A. and Byers, O. (eds). 2002. Conservation assessment and management plan for southern African coastal seabirds. Workshop Report, Cape Town, South Africa, 4-8 Feb
- R1391 - Wanless, R. et al. (in prep.) Action Plan for the Benguela Current seabirds. AEWA Secretariat, Bonn.
- R1359 - van Roomen, M., van Winden, E. & Langendoen, T. 2014. The assessment of trends and population sizes of a selection of waterbird species and populations from the coastal East Atlantic Flyway for Conservation Status Report 6 of The African Eurasian Waterbird Agreement. Wadden Sea Flyway Initiative, Wetlands International & Birdlife International.
- R1490 - Angel, A., Wanless, R. & Hagen, C. 2014. Fact sheets for AEWA-listed seabird species in the Benguela region. Prepared for the African-Eurasian Waterbird Agreement by BirdLife South Africa. Manuscript.
- R1552 - van Roomen M., Nagy S., Foppen R., Dodman T., Citegetse G. & Ndiaye A. 2015. Status of coastal waterbird populations in the East Atlantic Flyway. With special attention to flyway populations making use of the Wadden Sea. Programme Rich Wadden Sea, Leeuwarden, The Netherlands, Sovon, Nijmegen, The Netherlands, Wetlands International, Wageningen, The Netherlands, BirdLife International, Cambridge, United Kingdom &, Common Wadden Sea Secretariat, Wilhelmshaven, Germany. URL: http://www.waddensea-secretariat.org/sites/default/files/downloads/status_coastal_birds_eaf_2014_1.pdf
- R1755 - Hagen, C. & Wanless, R. 2015. International Multi-species Action Plan for the Conservation of Benguela Upwelling System Coastal Seabirds. AEWA Technical Series No. 60. Bonn, Germany.
- R1726 - Hagen, C. & Wanless, R. 2015. International Multi-species Action Plan for the Conservation of Benguela Upwelling System Coastal Seabirds. AEWA Technical Series No. 60. Bonn, Germany
- R1620 - van Roomen, M., Nagy, S., Citegetse, G., & Schekkerman, H. (2018). East Atlantic Flyway Assessment 2017: the status of coastal waterbird populations and their sites. Wadden Sea Flyway Initiative p/a CWSS, Wetlands International, BirdLife International, Wilhelmshaven, Wageningen and Cambridge. Retrieved from: https://www.waddensea-worldheritage.org/resources/east-atlantic-flyway-assessment-2017
- R1619 - Nagy, S. & Langendoen, T. (2020) Flyway trend analyses based on data from the African-Eurasian Waterbird Census from the period of 1967-2018. Online publication. Wetlands International, Wageningen, The Netherlands. URL: http://iwc.test.wetlands.org/index.php/aewatrends8
- S8694 - 50 pairs in ZA, 930-2,350 pairs in NA, 10 pairs in Angola (Wanless et al, in prep.).
- T6697 - Number of colonies decreased due to recreational pressures and construction at its breeding grounds (Wanless et al., in prep.). Based on mid-winter counts, stable/fluctuating trend both in the long- and in the short-term (1992-2014 and 2003-2014, respectively) according to van Roomen et al. (2014). The species is possibly in significant long-term decline (Angel et al., 2014).
- T7230 - Number of colonies decreased due to recreational pressures and construction at its breeding grounds (Wanless et al., in prep.). van Roomen et al. (2015) also confirms the decline both for the short- and the long-term based on IWC counts. The species is possibly in significant long-term decline (Angel et al., 2014).
- T7641 - Wanless and Hagen (2015) reported unknown trend for the population but stable trend for the population in NA, where majority of the birds breed, decline in ZA and unknown trend in AO based on trends in colony numbers. Simmons et al. (2015) also noted that there is little evidence of population declines apart from the extinction of three colonies. Based on IWC data, van Roomen et al. (2018) reported also stable trends for 1992-2017 (1.01) and 2008-2017 (1.00). This is a rather different result from van Roomen et al. (2015) which indicated a decline. Based on IWC data from only NA and ZA, Nagy & Langendoen (2020) reported moderate decrease for 1995-2016 (0.9194) and uncertain trend for 2007-2016 (0.8384) and showing a fluctuating population. The different results are caused by methodological differences such as site selection and running the trend analysis at regional or at country level. However, count totals have substantially decreased in NA after 2008 and also in ZA. The observed fluctuations are believed to be related to observability of these birds during the breeding season rather than to genuine population changes.
Copyright Wetlands International 2012 Citation: Wetlands International (). "Waterbird Population Estimates" . Retrieved from wpe.wetlands.org on