Population information

Order name Charadriiformes
Family name Laridae
Scientific name Larus melanocephalus Common name Mediterranean Gull
Population name W Europe, Mediterranean & NW Africa
Breeding range Most on Ukrainian Black Sea + scattered through C, S & W Europe & E to Azerbaijan Non-breeding range Black Sea, Mediterranean, NW Europe, NW Africa
Red List Category Least Concern
Ramsar regions Africa Asia Europe
Notes

Conservation Framework

Conservation framework Notes
AEWA
EUBD
Note:

Population size

Publication Start year End year Minimum Maximum Estimate quality Notes References Actions
WPE 3 1970 1990 570,000 1,110,000 [R69]
WPE 1 1994 1994 100,000 1,000,000 [R70]
WPE 2 1994 1994 100,000 1,000,000 [R70]
WPE 4 1990 2000 360,000 960,000 [S2328] [R63]
WPE 5 2010 2010 50,000 120,000 Expert opinion [S7270] [R867]
CSR 4 2000 2000 360,000 960,000 Expert opinion
CSR 5 2010 2010 50,000 120,000 Expert opinion [S2331] [R867]
CSR 6 1990 2012 220,000 260,000 Expert opinion [S8424] [R1425] [R1362] [R1361]

Population trends

Publication Start year End year Trend Trend quality Notes References Actions
WPE 3 1970 1990 INC [R69]
WPE 1 1983 1993 INC [R70]
WPE 2 1983 1993 INC [R70]
WPE 4 1990 2000 STA [R63]
WPE 5 1990 2000 STA Poor [R63]
CSR 4 1990 2000 STA Poor [R63]
CSR 5 1990 2000 STA Poor [R63]
CSR 6 2000 2012 INC Reasonable [T6423] [R1362] [R1361]

Population 1% level

Publication Yearset 1 percent Note
WPE 3 2002 8400
WPE 1 0 -1
WPE 2 0 -1
WPE 4 2006 6600
WPE 5 2012 770
CSR 4 0 -1
CSR 5 0 -1
CSR 6 0 -1

References

  • R69 - BirdLife International/European Bird Census Council. 2000. European bird populations: estimates and trends. Cambridge, UK. BirdLife International Conservation Series No. 10.
  • R70 - BirdLife International/European Birds Census Council, European Birds Database. Accessed March 1994.
  • R63 - BirdLife International (2004)b. Birds in Europe, population estimates, trends and conservation status. Cambridge, UK: BirdLife International. (BirdLife Conservation Series No. 12).
  • R867 - Cama, A., Josa, P., Ferrer-Obiol, J. and Arcos, J.M. 2011. Mediterranean Gulls Larus melanocephalus wintering along the Mediterranean Iberian coast: numbers and activity rhythms in the species? main winter quarters. J Ornithol DOI 10.1007/s10336-011-0673-6. Published online 06 March 2011.
  • R1425 - Ardamatskaya (1999)
  • R1362 - European Topic Centre on Biological Diversity (in prep) Population and trend data provided by the EU Member States in the frame of their reporting under Article 12 of the EU Birds Directive. Online fact sheets. European Topic Centre on Biological Diversity, Paris. URL: http://bd.eionet.europa.eu/activities/Reporting/Article_12/Reports_2013/Member_State_Deliveries. Accessed on 31 July 2014.
  • R1361 - BirdLife International, BTO, EBCC, CSO, IUCN, RSPB, SOVON, Wetlands International (in prep) Population and trend data provided to the European Red List of Birds Project funded by the European Commission. Digital dataset. BirdLife International, Cambridge, UK. Accessed on 31 July 2014.
  • R1549 - BirdLife International 2015. European Red List of Birds. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities. http://datazone.birdlife.org/info/euroredlist

Notes

  • S2328 - 64: European breeding population 120,000 - 320,000 pairs (360,000-960,000 individuals). Estimate probably too high. Uncertain data from the principal breeding country, Ukraine, due to movement of colonies from year to year. Numbers wintering in Mediterranean much lower despite extensive surveys (F8a).
  • S7270 - Cama et al. 2011. New estimate based on comprehensive surveys in winter. Former over-estimates caused by double-counting at shifting locations of breeding colonies in breeding stronghold of Ukraine.
  • S2331 - 877. New estimate based on comprehensive surveys in winter. Former over-estimates caused by double-counting at shifting locations of breeding colonies in breeding stronghold of Ukraine.
  • S8424 - A new population estimate was adopted by Delany and Scott (2006) based on a review of wintering data by Cama et al., 2011) suggesting 50,000-120,000 individuals after rounding and claiming that the main cause of discrepancy is an overestimation of breeidng numbers in UA. However, recently 15,155-24,134 pairs reported from the EU Members States, except CZ, and BY, CH, TR (European Topic Centre on Biological Diversity, in prep., BirdLife International et al., in prep.). Further 310-340 pairs in AZ, CZ, RS&ME (BirdLife International, 2004). These two set of sources produce an estimate of 54,000-84,000 individuals without adding the estimate of 60,000 pairs, i.e. 180,000 individuals, estimate of Ardamatskaya (1999) the authors consider more reliable. However, even this estimate is 1.5 times higher than the upper limit of the estimate of Cama et al. (2011). However, for every other gull species well monitored in Europe, totals of wintering counts are always much lower than breeding estimates especially in case of coastal species. Therefore, the population estimate is revised based on the breeding numbers usingthe estimate of Ardamatskaya (1999) for RU and UA.
  • T6423 - Overall trend derived from national trend estimates for breeding birds indicate a large increase (2000-2012: 1.0246-1.0813, 1980-2012: 1.0180-1.0420; European Topic Centre on Biological Diversity, in prep., BirdLife International et al., in prep.) without RU and UA where it is decreasing. It is also decreasing in BY and GR. It is increasing in AT, DE, DK, ES,, FR, HU, HU, IE, IE, IT, NL, PL, SK and the UK and stable or fluctuating in BE, BG, CH, SE and TR.
  • S8976 - Current total 17,963-28,059 pairs excluding the uncertain estimates for UA. See CSR6 for further explanation.



Copyright Wetlands International 2012

Citation: Wetlands International (). "Waterbird Population Estimates" . Retrieved from wpe.wetlands.org on