Population information

Order name Charadriiformes
Family name Laridae
Scientific name Larus melanocephalus Common name Mediterranean Gull
Population name W Europe, Mediterranean & NW Africa
Breeding range Most on Ukrainian Black Sea + scattered through C, S & W Europe & E to Azerbaijan Non-breeding range Black Sea, Mediterranean, NW Europe, NW Africa
Red List Category Least Concern
Ramsar regions Africa Asia Europe
Notes

Conservation Framework

Conservation framework Notes
AEWA
EUBD
Note:

Population size

Publication Start year End year Minimum Maximum Estimate quality Notes References Actions
WPE 3 1970 1990 570,000 1,110,000 No quality assessment [R69]
WPE 1 1994 1994 100,000 1,000,000 No quality assessment [R70]
WPE 2 1994 1994 100,000 1,000,000 No quality assessment [R70]
WPE 4 1990 2000 360,000 960,000 No quality assessment [S2328] [R63]
WPE 5 2010 2010 50,000 120,000 Expert opinion [S7270] [R867]
AEWA CSR 4 2000 2000 360,000 960,000 Expert opinion
AEWA CSR 5 2010 2010 50,000 120,000 Expert opinion [S2331] [R867]
AEWA CSR 6 1990 2012 220,000 260,000 Expert opinion [S8424] [R1425] [R1362] [R1361]
AEWA CSR 7 1990 2012 220,000 260,000 Expert opinion [S8976] [R1549]
AEWA CSR 8 1996 2019 190,000 290,000 Expert opinion [S9476] [R1625] [R1630] [R1645] [R1619]

Population trends

Publication Start year End year Trend Trend quality Notes References Actions
WPE 3 1970 1990 INC No quality assessment [R69]
WPE 1 1983 1993 INC No quality assessment [R70]
WPE 2 1983 1993 INC No quality assessment [R70]
WPE 4 1990 2000 STA No quality assessment [R63]
WPE 5 1990 2000 STA Poor [R63]
AEWA CSR 4 1990 2000 STA Poor [R63]
AEWA CSR 5 1990 2000 STA Poor [R63]
AEWA CSR 6 2000 2012 INC Reasonable [T6423] [R1362] [R1361]
AEWA CSR 7 2000 2012 INC Reasonable [R1549]
AEWA CSR 8 2009 2018 DEC/STA Reasonable [T7618] [R1625] [R1619] [R867] [R1620]

Population 1% level

Publication Yearset 1 percent Note
WPE 3 2002 8400
WPE 1 -1 -1 Not Set
WPE 2 -1 -1 Not Set
WPE 4 2006 6600
WPE 5 2012 770
AEWA CSR 4 -1 -1 Not Set
AEWA CSR 5 -1 -1 Not Set
AEWA CSR 6 -1 -1 Not Set
AEWA CSR 7 2018 2400
AEWA CSR 8 2018 2400

References

  • R69 - BirdLife International/European Bird Census Council. 2000. European bird populations: estimates and trends. Cambridge, UK. BirdLife International Conservation Series No. 10.
  • R70 - BirdLife International/European Birds Census Council, European Birds Database. Accessed March 1994.
  • R63 - BirdLife International (2004)b. Birds in Europe, population estimates, trends and conservation status. Cambridge, UK: BirdLife International. (BirdLife Conservation Series No. 12).
  • R867 - Cama, A., Josa, P., Ferrer-Obiol, J. and Arcos, J.M. 2011. Mediterranean Gulls Larus melanocephalus wintering along the Mediterranean Iberian coast: numbers and activity rhythms in the species? main winter quarters. J Ornithol DOI 10.1007/s10336-011-0673-6. Published online 06 March 2011.
  • R1425 - Ardamatskaya (1999)
  • R1362 - European Topic Centre on Biological Diversity (in prep) Population and trend data provided by the EU Member States in the frame of their reporting under Article 12 of the EU Birds Directive. Online fact sheets. European Topic Centre on Biological Diversity, Paris. URL: http://bd.eionet.europa.eu/activities/Reporting/Article_12/Reports_2013/Member_State_Deliveries. Accessed on 31 July 2014.
  • R1361 - BirdLife International, BTO, EBCC, CSO, IUCN, RSPB, SOVON, Wetlands International (in prep) Population and trend data provided to the European Red List of Birds Project funded by the European Commission. Digital dataset. BirdLife International, Cambridge, UK. Accessed on 31 July 2014.
  • R1549 - BirdLife International 2015. European Red List of Birds. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities. http://datazone.birdlife.org/info/euroredlist
  • R1625 - BirdLife International (in prep) European Red List of Birds. Deliverable to the European Commission (DG Environment) in 2021 under Service Contract ENV.D.3/SER/2018/0018.
  • R1630 - Amhaouch, Z., Qninb, A., Mesbach, H., Noaman, M. (2020). Rapport sur le statut de la population des espèces d’oiseaud’eau (indigènes et) non indigènes inscrites Ă  l’AEWA dansla zone de l’Accord pour la pĂ©riode 2013-2018: Royuame du Maroc.
  • R1645 - Nadjiba, B. & Samir, S.M. (2020). Rapport sur le statut de la population des espèces d’oiseaud’eau (indigènes et) non indigènes inscrites Ă  l’AEWA dansla zone de l’Accord pour la pĂ©riode 2013-2018: AlgĂ©rie.
  • R1619 - Nagy, S. & Langendoen, T. (2020) Flyway trend analyses based on data from the African-Eurasian Waterbird Census from the period of 1967-2018. Online publication. Wetlands International, Wageningen, The Netherlands. URL: http://iwc.test.wetlands.org/index.php/aewatrends8
  • R1620 - van Roomen, M., Nagy, S., Citegetse, G., & Schekkerman, H. (2018). East Atlantic Flyway Assessment 2017: the status of coastal waterbird populations and their sites. Wadden Sea Flyway Initiative p/a CWSS, Wetlands International, BirdLife International, Wilhelmshaven, Wageningen and Cambridge. Retrieved from: https://www.waddensea-worldheritage.org/resources/east-atlantic-flyway-assessment-2017

Notes

  • S2328 - BirdLife International (2004b): European breeding population 120,000 - 320,000 pairs (360,000-960,000 individuals). Estimate probably too high. Uncertain data from the principal breeding country, Ukraine, due to movement of colonies from year to year. Numbers wintering in Mediterranean much lower despite extensive surveys (Flamant et al. in litt.2006).
  • S7270 - Cama et al. 2011. New estimate based on comprehensive surveys in winter. Former over-estimates caused by double-counting at shifting locations of breeding colonies in breeding stronghold of Ukraine.
  • S2331 - Cama et al. 2007. New estimate based on comprehensive surveys in winter. Former over-estimates caused by double-counting at shifting locations of breeding colonies in breeding stronghold of Ukraine.
  • S8424 - A new population estimate was adopted by Delany and Scott (2006) based on a review of wintering data by Cama et al., 2011) suggesting 50,000-120,000 individuals after rounding and claiming that the main cause of discrepancy is an overestimation of breeding numbers in UA. However, recently 15,155-24,134 pairs reported from the EU Members States, except CZ, and BY, CH, TR (European Topic Centre on Biological Diversity, in prep., BirdLife International et al., in prep.). Further 310-340 pairs in AZ, CZ, RS&ME (BirdLife International, 2004). These two set of sources produce an estimate of 54,000-84,000 individuals without adding the estimate of 60,000 pairs, i.e. 180,000 individuals, estimate of Ardamatskaya (1999) the authors consider more reliable. However, even this estimate is 1.5 times higher than the upper limit of the estimate of Cama et al. (2011). However, for every other gull species well monitored in Europe, totals of wintering counts are always much lower than breeding estimates especially in case of coastal species. Therefore, the population estimate is revised based on the breeding numbers using the estimate of Ardamatskaya (1999) for RU and UA.
  • T6423 - Overall trend derived from national trend estimates for breeding birds indicate a large increase (2000-2012: 1.0246-1.0813, 1980-2012: 1.0180-1.0420; European Topic Centre on Biological Diversity, in prep., BirdLife International et al., in prep.) without RU and UA where it is decreasing. It is also decreasing in BY and GR. It is increasing in AT, DE, DK, ES,, FR, HU, HU, IE, IE, IT, NL, PL, SK and the UK and stable or fluctuating in BE, BG, CH, SE and TR.
  • S8976 - Current total 17,963-28,059 pairs excluding the uncertain estimates for UA. See CSR6 for further explanation.
  • S9476 - The size of the breeding population is estimated at 62,500-96,391 pairs, or 190,000-290,000 individuals after rounding in AT, AZ, BE, BG, BY, CH, CZ, DE, DK, ES, FR, GR, HU, IE, IT, LT, NL, PL, RO, RS, RU, SE, SK, TR, UA, GB based on data from the period of 1996-2019 (BirdLife International, in prep.). The size of the wintering population is estimated at 50,000-65,000 individuals in AL, AZ, BA, BG, CH, ES, FR, GE, GR, PT, TR, UA, CY, MT (BirdLife International, in prep.), DZ (Nadjiba & Samir, 2020), MA (Amhaouch et al., 2020) based on data from the period of 1996-2019. The highest annual IWC count total between 2014–2018 was 40,687 individuals (Nagy & Langendoen, 2020).
  • T7618 - Based on BirdLife International (in prep.), it is estimated that the breeding population has decreased by 17-49% (equivalent to 31-71% in 3 generations) in AT, BE, BY, CH, CZ, DE, DK, ES, FR, GR, HU, IE, LT, NL, PL, RO, RS, RU, SE, SK, UA, GB between 2009 and 2018. No quantitative trend information is available from AZ, BG, IT, TR. This short-term decline is driven by the negative changes in the large populations in RU and UA. It has increased by 27-45% in AT, BE, BY, CH, CZ, DE, DK, ES, FR, HU, IE, IT, LT, NL, PL, RO, RS, SE, SK, UA, GB between 1980 and 2018. No quantitative trend information is available from AZ, BG, GR, RU, TR. The wintering population has increased by 157-156% in CH, FR, GR, MT, AL, MA between 2009 and 2018. No quantitative trend information is available from AZ, BA, BG, CY, ES (the main wintering area according to Cama et al., 2011), GE, PT, TR, UA and the S Mediterranean. It has increased by 1283-1268% in CH, FR, MT, AL between 1980 and 2018. No quantitative trend information is available from AZ, BA, BG, CY, ES, GE, GR, PT, TR, UA and the S Mediterranean. Based on IWC data, van Roomen et al. (2018) reported moderate increase for 1995-2016 (1.09) and uncertain trend for 2008-2016 (1.06) for the Western part of the Mediterranean and the Atlantic coast. Based on IWC data from 41 countries, i.e. including also IT, the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea, Nagy & Langendoen (2020) reported moderate increases for 1995-2018 (1.0317) and 1996-2018 (3 generations; 1.0264) and a stable trend for 2009-2018 (0.9943). The discrepancy between the breeding and wintering trend can be explained by either biased trend estimates in the breeding countries with large declines or by redistribution of the wintering birds to better monitored areas. The latter might be a possibility as the numbers are predominantly decreasing in the S Mediterranean while increasing in the N Mediterranean, W Black Sea and W Europe. However, the overall population trend is also affected by the size of the national population. If the populations in RU and UA are overestimated, the real rate of decline might be lower than it appears from the calculation. Therefore, the short-term trend is classified as either stable or decreasing.



Copyright Wetlands International 2012

Citation: Wetlands International (). "Waterbird Population Estimates" . Retrieved from wpe.wetlands.org on