|Scientific name||Larus cachinnans||Common name||Caspian Gull|
|Population name||Black Sea & Western Asia/SW Asia, NE Africa|
|Breeding range||Black Sea to Caspian & E Kazakhstan||Non-breeding range||Black & Caspian Seas, SW & C Asia, NE Africa, Sri Lanka|
|Red List Category||Least Concern|
|Ramsar regions||Africa Asia Europe|
|CAF Action Plan|
|Publication||Start year||End year||Minimum||Maximum||Estimate quality||Notes||References||Actions|
|WPE 3||1970||1990||100,000||1,000,000||No quality assessment||[R69]|
|WPE 4||1990||2000||100,000||1,000,001||No quality assessment||[S2232]||[R63]|
|WPE 1||0||0||-1||-1||No estimate|
|WPE 2||0||0||-1||-1||No estimate|
|WPE 5||1990||2000||100,000||1,000,001||Best guess||[R63]|
|AEWA CSR 4||1990||2000||100,000||1,000,001||Best guess||[R63]|
|AEWA CSR 5||1990||2000||100,000||1,000,001||Best guess||[R63]|
|AEWA CSR 6||1990||2012||200,000||500,000||Best guess||[S8413]||[R1362] [R1361] [R63] [R1414]|
|AEWA CSR 7||2000||2012||200,000||500,000||Best guess||[S8967]||[R1549] [R1569]|
|AEWA CSR 8||2000||2020||400,000||720,000||Expert opinion||[S9489]||[R1625] [R1628] [R1619]|
|Publication||Start year||End year||Trend||Trend quality||Notes||References||Actions|
|WPE 3||1970||1990||INC?||No quality assessment||[R69]|
|WPE 4||1990||2000||INC||No quality assessment||[R63]|
|WPE 1||0||0||Unknown||No quality assessment|
|WPE 2||0||0||Unknown||No quality assessment|
|AEWA CSR 4||1990||2000||INC||Poor||[R63]|
|AEWA CSR 5||1990||2000||INC||Poor||[R63]|
|AEWA CSR 6||2000||2012||INC?||Poor||[T6412]||[R1362] [R1361]|
|AEWA CSR 7||2000||2012||INC?||Poor||[T7041]||[R1549]|
|AEWA CSR 8||2008||2017||INC||Reasonable||[T7633]||[R1625] [R1619]|
Population 1% level
|WPE 4||-1||-1||Not Set|
|WPE 1||-1||-1||Not Set|
|WPE 2||-1||-1||Not Set|
|AEWA CSR 4||-1||-1||Not Set|
|AEWA CSR 5||-1||-1||Not Set|
|AEWA CSR 6||-1||-1||Not Set|
|AEWA CSR 7||2018||3200|
|AEWA CSR 8||2018||3200|
- R69 - BirdLife International/European Bird Census Council. 2000. European bird populations: estimates and trends. Cambridge, UK. BirdLife International Conservation Series No. 10.
- R63 - BirdLife International (2004)b. Birds in Europe, population estimates, trends and conservation status. Cambridge, UK: BirdLife International. (BirdLife Conservation Series No. 12).
- R1362 - European Topic Centre on Biological Diversity (in prep) Population and trend data provided by the EU Member States in the frame of their reporting under Article 12 of the EU Birds Directive. Online fact sheets. European Topic Centre on Biological Diversity, Paris. URL: http://bd.eionet.europa.eu/activities/Reporting/Article_12/Reports_2013/Member_State_Deliveries. Accessed on 31 July 2014.
- R1361 - BirdLife International, BTO, EBCC, CSO, IUCN, RSPB, SOVON, Wetlands International (in prep) Population and trend data provided to the European Red List of Birds Project funded by the European Commission. Digital dataset. BirdLife International, Cambridge, UK. Accessed on 31 July 2014.
- R1414 - (Olsen, 2010)
- R1549 - BirdLife International 2015. European Red List of Birds. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities. http://datazone.birdlife.org/info/euroredlist
- R1569 - Sheldon, R. 2017. Estimates of breeding waterbird populations in Central/SW Asia, The Caucasus and the Arabian Peninsula.
- R1625 - BirdLife International (in prep) European Red List of Birds. Deliverable to the European Commission (DG Environment) in 2021 under Service Contract ENV.D.3/SER/2018/0018.
- R1628 - Kalyakin, M., Morkovin, A. Voltzit, O., Sklyarenko, S., Urazaliyev, R., Kashkarov, R., Ten, A, Rustamov, E (2020): Breeding population estimates for selected waterbirds in West Siberia and Central Asia. Unpublished reports. Wetlands International & BirdLife International, Wageningen & Cambridge (UK).
- R1619 - Nagy, S. & Langendoen, T. (2020) Flyway trend analyses based on data from the African-Eurasian Waterbird Census from the period of 1967-2018. Online publication. Wetlands International, Wageningen, The Netherlands. URL: http://iwc.test.wetlands.org/index.php/aewatrends8
- S2232 - BirdLife International (2004b): European breeding population of Caspian Gull and Yellow-legged Gull 310,000-580,000 pairs (930,000 - 1,740,000 individuals).
- S8413 - Earlier estimate concerned L.c. cachinnans and L. c. michahellis combined. 31,551-49,967 pairs in BY, DE, HU, LT, PL, RO, RU, SK, and TR (European Topic Centre on Biological Diversity, in prep., BirdLife International et al., in prep.) and further 22,800-33,530 pairs in AZ, GE, UA and MD (BirdLife International, 2004). This yields a total estimate of 163,000-250,000 individuals after rounding, but the population also includes an unknown number of birds from Central Asia. Assuming minimum as many as the minimum for European RU and maximum as many as the entire European population, the total size might be 200,000-500,000 individuals. The breeding numbers agree closely with the sum of the wintering numbers from BG, BY, CH, CY, DE, GR, LU, RO, RU, SE and TR (149,240-271,229). However, birds in the Middle East are not included, but it can make up 20-30% of gull gatherings in the Gulf (Olsen 2010).
- T6412 - Increasing in every country which made new trend estimates (European Topic Centre on Biological Diversity, in prep., BirdLife International et al., in prep.).
- S8967 - 54,051-87,487 pairs in Europe (BirdLife International 2015). Robust population estimates for C Asia are lacking (Sheldon 2017).
- T7041 - Increasing in most European countries, but trend in C Asia is unknown.
- S9489 - The size of the breeding population is estimated at 133,335-241,209 pairs, or 400,000-720,000 individuals after rounding in AZ, BY, DE, HU, LT, MD, PL, RO, RU, SK, UA (BirdLife International, in prep.), UZ and KZ (Kalyakin et al., 2020) based on data from the period of 2000-2020. The highest annual IWC count total between 2014â€“2018 was 83,539 individuals (Nagy & Langendoen, 2020).
- T7633 - Based on BirdLife International (in prep.), it is estimated that the breeding population has increased by 26-42% in BY, DE, HU, LT, PL, RU, SK, UA between 2009 and 2018 and by 75-107% between 1980 and 2018. No quantitative trend information is available from AZ, MD, RO, UZ, KZ and West Siberia. Based on BirdLife International (in prep.), it is estimated that the wintering population has changed by -7-7% in CH, CY, CZ, RO, AL between 2009 and 2018 and it has decreased by 99% in CH, CZ, DE, GE, RO, AL between 1980 and 2018. However, no quantitative trend information is reported from most of the wintering range. Based on IWC data from 31 countries, Nagy & Langendoen (2020) reported moderate decrease for 2003-2017 (0.9084) and for 2008-2013 (0.9134). Based on the growth rate of the overall trend, the population is projected to decrease by 95% in 31 years, i.e. in 3 generations. Based on the growth rate of the last 10 years, the population is projected to decrease by 94% in 3 generations compared to the population levels in 2008. Apparently, the main decrease happens in the eastern part of the wintering range. However, the decreasing trend in wintering data is likely to represent redistribution of birds as the breeding numbers are increasing.
Copyright Wetlands International 2012 Citation: Wetlands International (). "Waterbird Population Estimates" . Retrieved from wpe.wetlands.org on