|Scientific name||Larus argentatus||Common name||European Herring Gull|
|Population name||argentatus, North & North-west Europe|
|Breeding range||Denmark & Fenno-Scandia to E Kola Peninsula||Non-breeding range||N & W Europe|
|Red List Category||Least Concern|
|Notes||Populations in Germany divided into appropriate subspecies in CSR5 (Johannes Wahl in litt. 2008.). However, this has proven untraceable and therefore allocation of countries to populations follows Olsen and Larsson (2010) even if some overlap and intergradation exists. From WPE3 onwards, includes the yellow-legged form referred to as L. a. omissus by some authors.|
|Publication||Start year||End year||Minimum||Maximum||Estimate quality||Notes||References||Actions|
|WPE 1||0||0||1,400,000||1,400,000||No quality assessment||[R414]|
|WPE 3||1970||1990||1,100,000||1,500,000||No quality assessment||[R69]|
|WPE 4||1990||2000||1,700,000||3,600,000||No quality assessment||[S2212]||[R63]|
|WPE 2||0||0||1,400,000||1,400,000||No quality assessment||[R414]|
|WPE 5||2007||2007||1,300,000||3,100,000||Expert opinion||[R878]|
|AEWA CSR 4||2000||2000||1,700,000||3,600,000||Expert opinion|
|AEWA CSR 5||2007||2007||1,300,000||3,100,000||Expert opinion||[R878]|
|AEWA CSR 6||2000||2013||1,300,000||1,600,000||Expert opinion||[S8697]||[R1362] [R1361] [R1414]|
|AEWA CSR 7||2000||2013||1,300,000||1,600,000||Expert opinion||[S8965]||[R1549]|
|AEWA CSR 8||2008||2018||860,000||1,000,000||Expert opinion||[S9485]||[R1625] [R1750]|
|Publication||Start year||End year||Trend||Trend quality||Notes||References||Actions|
|WPE 1||0||0||INC||No quality assessment||[R414]|
|WPE 3||1970||1990||INC||No quality assessment||[R69]|
|WPE 4||1990||2000||INC||No quality assessment||[R63]|
|WPE 2||0||0||INC||No quality assessment||[R414]|
|WPE 5||1990||2000||STA||Poor||[R63] [R904]|
|AEWA CSR 4||1990||2000||STA||Poor||[R63] [R904]|
|AEWA CSR 5||1990||2000||STA||Poor||[R63] [R904]|
|AEWA CSR 6||2000||2012||STA/FLU||Reasonable||[T6717]||[R1362] [R1361]|
|AEWA CSR 7||2000||2012||DEC||Reasonable||[T7039]||[R1549]|
|AEWA CSR 8||2009||2018||DEC||Reasonable||[T7629]||[R1625]|
Population 1% level
|AEWA CSR 4||-1||-1||Not Set|
|AEWA CSR 5||-1||-1||Not Set|
|AEWA CSR 7||2018||14400|
|AEWA CSR 8||2018||14400|
- R414 - Lloyd, C., Tasker, M.L. and Partridge, K. 1991. The status of seabirds in Britain and Ireland. T. and A.D. Poyser, London, U.K. 355 pp.
- R69 - BirdLife International/European Bird Census Council. 2000. European bird populations: estimates and trends. Cambridge, UK. BirdLife International Conservation Series No. 10.
- R63 - BirdLife International (2004)b. Birds in Europe, population estimates, trends and conservation status. Cambridge, UK: BirdLife International. (BirdLife Conservation Series No. 12).
- R878 - Johannes Wahl in litt. 2008.
- R904 - Wetlands International. November 2007. Unpublished population trend analysis based on the IWC database of January counts in Europe using TRIM software.
- R1362 - European Topic Centre on Biological Diversity (in prep) Population and trend data provided by the EU Member States in the frame of their reporting under Article 12 of the EU Birds Directive. Online fact sheets. European Topic Centre on Biological Diversity, Paris. URL: http://bd.eionet.europa.eu/activities/Reporting/Article_12/Reports_2013/Member_State_Deliveries. Accessed on 31 July 2014.
- R1361 - BirdLife International, BTO, EBCC, CSO, IUCN, RSPB, SOVON, Wetlands International (in prep) Population and trend data provided to the European Red List of Birds Project funded by the European Commission. Digital dataset. BirdLife International, Cambridge, UK. Accessed on 31 July 2014.
- R1414 - (Olsen, 2010)
- R1549 - BirdLife International 2015. European Red List of Birds. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities. http://datazone.birdlife.org/info/euroredlist
- R1625 - BirdLife International (in prep) European Red List of Birds. Deliverable to the European Commission (DG Environment) in 2021 under Service Contract ENV.D.3/SER/2018/0018.
- R1750 - Olsen, K. M. (2010). Gulls of Europe, Asia and North America. Bloomsbury Publishing.
- S2212 - BirdLife International (2004b): Breeding population in relevant countries 573,000-1,193,000 pairs (1,719,000-3,579,000 individuals). For populations over 2 million birds, Ramsar Convention criterion 5 (20,000 or more waterbirds) applies.
- S8697 - 447,705-545,905 pairs in RU, BY, DE, DK, EE, FI, LT, LV, NO, PL, SE and SJ (European Topic Centre on Biological Diversity, in prep, BirdLife International et al. in prep.). Country allocation follows Olsen (2010) although intergradation is recognised.
- T6717 - Overall trend based on trends of national breeding populations is 0.9850-1.0032, i.e. stable/fluctuating, in the short-term and 0.9909-0.9981, i.e. moderate decrease, in the long-term (1980-2012) according to European Topic Centre on Biological Diversity (in prep.) and BirdLife International et al. (in prep.).
- S8965 - 447,705-545,905 pairs in RU, BY, DE, DK, EE, FI, LT, LV, NO, PL, SE and SJ. Country allocation follows Olsen (2010) although intergradation is recognised.
- T7039 - Declined at an annual rate of 0.5% both in the short- and the long-term. In the long-term, the population has declined only in FI (7-18%) and SE (70-76%), but these support about 14% of the population, which is not seem to be compensated by strong increases in other countries.
- S9485 - The size of the breeding population is estimated at 285,317-348,339 pairs, or 860,000-1,000,000 individuals after rounding in BY, DE, DE, DK, EE, FI, LT, LV, NO, PL, RU, SE, SJ based on data from the period of 2008-2018. Country allocation follows Olsen (2010) although intergradation is recognised.
- T7629 - Based on BirdLife International (in prep.), it is estimated that the breeding population has decreased by 64-65% (equivalent to 87-90% in 3 generations) in BY, DE, DK, EE, FI, LT, LV, NO, RU, SE between 2009 and 2018 and by 34-50% between 1980 and 2018. No quantitative trend information is available from PL, SJ.
Copyright Wetlands International 2012 Citation: Wetlands International (). "Waterbird Population Estimates" . Retrieved from wpe.wetlands.org on