Population information

Order name Charadriiformes
Family name Laridae
Scientific name Larus marinus Common name Great Black-backed Gull
Population name North & West Europe
Breeding range Coasts NW France, Ireland, Britain, Iceland E to Scandinavia, White Sea Non-breeding range E Atlantic coast S to Iberia
Red List Category Least Concern
Ramsar regions Europe
Notes Population formerly named E Atlantic bre (WPE1) and North-eastern Atlantic bre.

Conservation Framework

Conservation framework Notes
AEWA
EUBD
Note:

Population size

Publication Start year End year Minimum Maximum Estimate quality Notes References Actions
WPE 1 0 0 480,000 480,000 No quality assessment [R414]
WPE 3 1970 1990 420,000 510,000 No quality assessment [R69]
WPE 4 1990 2000 330,000 540,000 No quality assessment [S2158] [R63]
WPE 2 0 0 480,000 480,000 No quality assessment [R414]
WPE 5 1990 2000 330,000 540,000 Expert opinion [R63]
AEWA CSR 4 1990 2000 330,000 540,000 Expert opinion [R63]
AEWA CSR 5 1990 2000 330,000 540,000 Expert opinion [R63]
AEWA CSR 6 2000 2013 340,000 378,000 Expert opinion [S8408] [R1362] [R1361] [R63]
AEWA CSR 7 1981 2013 340,000 378,000 Expert opinion [S8960] [R1549]
AEWA CSR 8 1981 2018 240,000 31,000 Expert opinion [S9493] [R1625] [R1619]

Population trends

Publication Start year End year Trend Trend quality Notes References Actions
WPE 1 0 0 INC No quality assessment [R414]
WPE 3 1970 1990 STA No quality assessment [R69]
WPE 4 1990 2000 INC No quality assessment [R63]
WPE 2 0 0 INC No quality assessment [R414]
WPE 5 1990 2000 INC Reasonable [T5061] [R63] [R888]
AEWA CSR 4 1996 2005 INC Reasonable
AEWA CSR 5 1990 2000 INC Reasonable [T1431] [R63] [R888]
AEWA CSR 6 2000 2012 DEC Reasonable [T6407] [R1361] [R1362]
AEWA CSR 7 2000 2012 DEC Reasonable [T7033] [R1549]
AEWA CSR 8 2009 2018 STA Good [T7637] [R1625] [R1737] [R1619]

Population 1% level

Publication Yearset 1 percent Note
WPE 1 1994 4800
WPE 3 2002 4700
WPE 4 2006 4400
WPE 2 1994 4800
WPE 5 2012 4200
AEWA CSR 4 -1 -1 Not Set
AEWA CSR 5 -1 -1 Not Set
AEWA CSR 6 -1 -1 Not Set
AEWA CSR 7 2018 3600
AEWA CSR 8 2018 3600

References

  • R414 - Lloyd, C., Tasker, M.L. and Partridge, K. 1991. The status of seabirds in Britain and Ireland. T. and A.D. Poyser, London, U.K. 355 pp.
  • R69 - BirdLife International/European Bird Census Council. 2000. European bird populations: estimates and trends. Cambridge, UK. BirdLife International Conservation Series No. 10.
  • R63 - BirdLife International (2004)b. Birds in Europe, population estimates, trends and conservation status. Cambridge, UK: BirdLife International. (BirdLife Conservation Series No. 12).
  • R888 - Wetlands International, 2012. Results of trend analysis undertaken for CSR5 2012, presented in Annex 4. http://www.unep-aewa.org/meetings/en/mop/mop5_docs/pdf/mop5_14_csr5.pdf
  • R1362 - European Topic Centre on Biological Diversity (in prep) Population and trend data provided by the EU Member States in the frame of their reporting under Article 12 of the EU Birds Directive. Online fact sheets. European Topic Centre on Biological Diversity, Paris. URL: http://bd.eionet.europa.eu/activities/Reporting/Article_12/Reports_2013/Member_State_Deliveries. Accessed on 31 July 2014.
  • R1361 - BirdLife International, BTO, EBCC, CSO, IUCN, RSPB, SOVON, Wetlands International (in prep) Population and trend data provided to the European Red List of Birds Project funded by the European Commission. Digital dataset. BirdLife International, Cambridge, UK. Accessed on 31 July 2014.
  • R1549 - BirdLife International 2015. European Red List of Birds. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities. http://datazone.birdlife.org/info/euroredlist
  • R1625 - BirdLife International (in prep) European Red List of Birds. Deliverable to the European Commission (DG Environment) in 2021 under Service Contract ENV.D.3/SER/2018/0018.
  • R1619 - Nagy, S. & Langendoen, T. (2020) Flyway trend analyses based on data from the African-Eurasian Waterbird Census from the period of 1967-2018. Online publication. Wetlands International, Wageningen, The Netherlands. URL: http://iwc.test.wetlands.org/index.php/aewatrends8
  • R1737 - van Roomen et al. (2018)

Notes

  • S2158 - BirdLife International (2004b): European breeding population 110,000-180,000 pairs (330,000-540,000 individuals).
  • T5061 - Wetlands International 2012. Trend 1988-2007: +2.0% p.a. - Increase.
  • T1431 - Wetlands International 2012. Trend 1988-2007: +2.0% p.a. – Increase.
  • S8408 - 112,200-124,776 pairs in DE, DK, EE, ES, FI, FR, IS, NL, NO, RU, SE, SJ and the UK (European Topic Centre on Biological Diversity, in prep., BirdLife International et al., in prep.). Further 1,200 pairs on FO (BirdLife International, 2004). This yields a total estimate of 340,000-378,000 individuals after rounding. Only 48,915-49,417 wintering birds reported from BE, CH, DE, ES, FR, IS (European Topic Centre on Biological Diversity, in prep., BirdLife International et al., in prep.).
  • T6407 - Overall trend is decreasing in the short-term (2000-2012: 0.9785-0.9909) and stable in the long-term (1980-2012: 0.9958-1.0006). Decreasing in EE, FI, SE and UK, increasing in DE, FR, IE, NL and NO, stable in DK and SJ, unknown in ES, IS and RU.
  • S8960 - 113,400-125,976 pairs in DE, DK, EE, ES, FI, FO, FR, IS, NL, NO, RU, SE, SJ and the UK.
  • T7033 - Declining in the short-term, stable in the long-term.
  • S9493 - The size of the breeding population is estimated at 81,438-102,495 pairs, or 240,000-310,000 individuals after rounding in DE, DK, EE, ES, FI, FO, FR, IE, IS, NL, NO, RU, SE, SJ, GB based on data from the period of 1981-2018 (BirdLife International, in prep.). The highest annual IWC count total between 2014–2018 was 40,888 individuals (Nagy & Langendoen, 2020).
  • T7637 - Based on BirdLife International (in prep.), it is estimated that the breeding population has decreased by 8-36% (equivalent to 14-51% in 3 generations) in DE, EE, ES, FI, IE, NL, SE, GB between 2009 and 2018. No quantitative trend information is available from DK, FO, FR, IS, NO (the largest national population), RU, SJ. It has changed by -42-13% in DE, DK, EE, ES, FI, FR, IE, NL, SE, GB between 1980 and 2018. No quantitative trend information is available from FO, IS, NO, RU, SJ. The wintering population has changed by -25-9% in DE, ES, FR between 2009 and 2018 and it has decreased by 15-52% between 1980 and 2018. No quantitative trend information is available from IS and no trend information is available from main wintering ranges states such as GB and NL. Based on IWC data, van Roomen et al. (2018) reported moderate decline for 1994-2016 (0.98) and uncertain trend for 2008-2016 (0.99). Based on updated IWC data and using different site selection and trend analysis techniques Nagy & Langendoen (2020) reported stable trend for 1993-2018 (0.9983) and for 2009-2018 (1.01). Considering that the trend is not known for almost 70% of the breeding population, the trend is adopted based on the IWC data.



Copyright Wetlands International 2012

Citation: Wetlands International (). "Waterbird Population Estimates" . Retrieved from wpe.wetlands.org on