|Scientific name||Larus marinus||Common name||Great Black-backed Gull|
|Population name||North & West Europe|
|Breeding range||Coasts NW France, Ireland, Britain, Iceland E to Scandinavia, White Sea||Non-breeding range||E Atlantic coast S to Iberia|
|Red List Category||Least Concern|
|Notes||Population formerly named E Atlantic bre (WPE1) and North-eastern Atlantic bre.|
|Publication||Start year||End year||Minimum||Maximum||Estimate quality||Notes||References||Actions|
|WPE 1||0||0||480,000||480,000||No quality assessment||[R414]|
|WPE 3||1970||1990||420,000||510,000||No quality assessment||[R69]|
|WPE 4||1990||2000||330,000||540,000||No quality assessment||[S2158]||[R63]|
|WPE 2||0||0||480,000||480,000||No quality assessment||[R414]|
|WPE 5||1990||2000||330,000||540,000||Expert opinion||[R63]|
|AEWA CSR 4||1990||2000||330,000||540,000||Expert opinion||[R63]|
|AEWA CSR 5||1990||2000||330,000||540,000||Expert opinion||[R63]|
|AEWA CSR 6||2000||2013||340,000||378,000||Expert opinion||[S8408]||[R1362] [R1361] [R63]|
|AEWA CSR 7||1981||2013||340,000||378,000||Expert opinion||[S8960]||[R1549]|
|AEWA CSR 8||1981||2018||240,000||31,000||Expert opinion||[S9493]||[R1625] [R1619]|
|Publication||Start year||End year||Trend||Trend quality||Notes||References||Actions|
|WPE 1||0||0||INC||No quality assessment||[R414]|
|WPE 3||1970||1990||STA||No quality assessment||[R69]|
|WPE 4||1990||2000||INC||No quality assessment||[R63]|
|WPE 2||0||0||INC||No quality assessment||[R414]|
|WPE 5||1990||2000||INC||Reasonable||[T5061]||[R63] [R888]|
|AEWA CSR 4||1996||2005||INC||Reasonable|
|AEWA CSR 5||1990||2000||INC||Reasonable||[T1431]||[R63] [R888]|
|AEWA CSR 6||2000||2012||DEC||Reasonable||[T6407]||[R1361] [R1362]|
|AEWA CSR 7||2000||2012||DEC||Reasonable||[T7033]||[R1549]|
|AEWA CSR 8||2009||2018||STA||Good||[T7637]||[R1625] [R1737] [R1619]|
Population 1% level
|AEWA CSR 4||-1||-1||Not Set|
|AEWA CSR 5||-1||-1||Not Set|
|AEWA CSR 6||-1||-1||Not Set|
|AEWA CSR 7||2018||3600|
|AEWA CSR 8||2018||3600|
- R414 - Lloyd, C., Tasker, M.L. and Partridge, K. 1991. The status of seabirds in Britain and Ireland. T. and A.D. Poyser, London, U.K. 355 pp.
- R69 - BirdLife International/European Bird Census Council. 2000. European bird populations: estimates and trends. Cambridge, UK. BirdLife International Conservation Series No. 10.
- R63 - BirdLife International (2004)b. Birds in Europe, population estimates, trends and conservation status. Cambridge, UK: BirdLife International. (BirdLife Conservation Series No. 12).
- R888 - Wetlands International, 2012. Results of trend analysis undertaken for CSR5 2012, presented in Annex 4. http://www.unep-aewa.org/meetings/en/mop/mop5_docs/pdf/mop5_14_csr5.pdf
- R1362 - European Topic Centre on Biological Diversity (in prep) Population and trend data provided by the EU Member States in the frame of their reporting under Article 12 of the EU Birds Directive. Online fact sheets. European Topic Centre on Biological Diversity, Paris. URL: http://bd.eionet.europa.eu/activities/Reporting/Article_12/Reports_2013/Member_State_Deliveries. Accessed on 31 July 2014.
- R1361 - BirdLife International, BTO, EBCC, CSO, IUCN, RSPB, SOVON, Wetlands International (in prep) Population and trend data provided to the European Red List of Birds Project funded by the European Commission. Digital dataset. BirdLife International, Cambridge, UK. Accessed on 31 July 2014.
- R1549 - BirdLife International 2015. European Red List of Birds. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities. http://datazone.birdlife.org/info/euroredlist
- R1625 - BirdLife International (in prep) European Red List of Birds. Deliverable to the European Commission (DG Environment) in 2021 under Service Contract ENV.D.3/SER/2018/0018.
- R1619 - Nagy, S. & Langendoen, T. (2020) Flyway trend analyses based on data from the African-Eurasian Waterbird Census from the period of 1967-2018. Online publication. Wetlands International, Wageningen, The Netherlands. URL: http://iwc.test.wetlands.org/index.php/aewatrends8
- R1737 - van Roomen et al. (2018)
- S2158 - BirdLife International (2004b): European breeding population 110,000-180,000 pairs (330,000-540,000 individuals).
- T5061 - Wetlands International 2012. Trend 1988-2007: +2.0% p.a. - Increase.
- T1431 - Wetlands International 2012. Trend 1988-2007: +2.0% p.a. â€“ Increase.
- S8408 - 112,200-124,776 pairs in DE, DK, EE, ES, FI, FR, IS, NL, NO, RU, SE, SJ and the UK (European Topic Centre on Biological Diversity, in prep., BirdLife International et al., in prep.). Further 1,200 pairs on FO (BirdLife International, 2004). This yields a total estimate of 340,000-378,000 individuals after rounding. Only 48,915-49,417 wintering birds reported from BE, CH, DE, ES, FR, IS (European Topic Centre on Biological Diversity, in prep., BirdLife International et al., in prep.).
- T6407 - Overall trend is decreasing in the short-term (2000-2012: 0.9785-0.9909) and stable in the long-term (1980-2012: 0.9958-1.0006). Decreasing in EE, FI, SE and UK, increasing in DE, FR, IE, NL and NO, stable in DK and SJ, unknown in ES, IS and RU.
- S8960 - 113,400-125,976 pairs in DE, DK, EE, ES, FI, FO, FR, IS, NL, NO, RU, SE, SJ and the UK.
- T7033 - Declining in the short-term, stable in the long-term.
- S9493 - The size of the breeding population is estimated at 81,438-102,495 pairs, or 240,000-310,000 individuals after rounding in DE, DK, EE, ES, FI, FO, FR, IE, IS, NL, NO, RU, SE, SJ, GB based on data from the period of 1981-2018 (BirdLife International, in prep.). The highest annual IWC count total between 2014â€“2018 was 40,888 individuals (Nagy & Langendoen, 2020).
- T7637 - Based on BirdLife International (in prep.), it is estimated that the breeding population has decreased by 8-36% (equivalent to 14-51% in 3 generations) in DE, EE, ES, FI, IE, NL, SE, GB between 2009 and 2018. No quantitative trend information is available from DK, FO, FR, IS, NO (the largest national population), RU, SJ. It has changed by -42-13% in DE, DK, EE, ES, FI, FR, IE, NL, SE, GB between 1980 and 2018. No quantitative trend information is available from FO, IS, NO, RU, SJ. The wintering population has changed by -25-9% in DE, ES, FR between 2009 and 2018 and it has decreased by 15-52% between 1980 and 2018. No quantitative trend information is available from IS and no trend information is available from main wintering ranges states such as GB and NL. Based on IWC data, van Roomen et al. (2018) reported moderate decline for 1994-2016 (0.98) and uncertain trend for 2008-2016 (0.99). Based on updated IWC data and using different site selection and trend analysis techniques Nagy & Langendoen (2020) reported stable trend for 1993-2018 (0.9983) and for 2009-2018 (1.01). Considering that the trend is not known for almost 70% of the breeding population, the trend is adopted based on the IWC data.
Copyright Wetlands International 2012 Citation: Wetlands International (). "Waterbird Population Estimates" . Retrieved from wpe.wetlands.org on