|Scientific name||Larus canus||Common name||Mew Gull|
|Population name||canus, NW & C Europe/Atlantic coast & Mediterranean|
|Breeding range||Iceland, Ireland, Britain, E to White Sea||Non-breeding range||Europe to N Africa|
|Red List Category||Least Concern|
|Ramsar regions||Africa Europe|
|Publication||Start year||End year||Minimum||Maximum||Estimate quality||Notes||References||Actions|
|WPE 1||0||0||1,600,000||1,600,000||No quality assessment||[R414]|
|WPE 3||1970||1990||1,300,000||2,000,000||No quality assessment||[R69]|
|WPE 4||1990||2000||1,200,000||2,250,000||No quality assessment||[S2128]||[R63]|
|WPE 2||0||0||1,600,000||1,600,000||No quality assessment||[R414]|
|WPE 5||1990||2000||1,200,000||2,250,000||Expert opinion||[R63]|
|AEWA CSR 4||1990||2000||1,200,000||2,250,000||Expert opinion||[R63]|
|AEWA CSR 5||1990||2000||1,200,000||2,250,000||Expert opinion||[R63]|
|AEWA CSR 6||1998||2013||1,200,000||2,000,000||Expert opinion||[S8405]||[R63] [R1362] [R1361] [R1413] [R1414]|
|AEWA CSR 7||1998||2013||1,400,000||1,900,000||Expert opinion||[S8957]||[R1549]|
|AEWA CSR 8||1981||2018||1,400,000||2,000,000||Expert opinion||[S9478]||[R1625] [R1549] [R1619] [R1750]|
|Publication||Start year||End year||Trend||Trend quality||Notes||References||Actions|
|WPE 1||0||0||INC||No quality assessment||[R414]|
|WPE 3||1970||1990||DEC||No quality assessment||[R69]|
|WPE 4||1990||2000||DEC?||No quality assessment||[R63]|
|WPE 2||0||0||INC||No quality assessment||[R414]|
|WPE 5||1997||2007||DEC?||No idea||[T5052]||[R63] [R888]|
|AEWA CSR 4||1997||2007||DEC||Poor|
|AEWA CSR 5||1997||2007||DEC?||Poor||[T1406]||[R63] [R888]|
|AEWA CSR 6||2000||2012||STA/FLU||Reasonable||[T6404]||[R1362] [R1361] [R1521]|
|AEWA CSR 7||2000||2015||STA/FLU||Reasonable||[T7030]||[R1548] [R1549]|
|AEWA CSR 8||2009||2018||DEC?||Reasonable||[T7621]||[R1625] [R1620] [R1750]|
Population 1% level
|AEWA CSR 4||-1||-1||Not Set|
|AEWA CSR 5||-1||-1||Not Set|
|AEWA CSR 6||-1||-1||Not Set|
|AEWA CSR 7||2012||16400|
|AEWA CSR 8||2012||16400|
- R414 - Lloyd, C., Tasker, M.L. and Partridge, K. 1991. The status of seabirds in Britain and Ireland. T. and A.D. Poyser, London, U.K. 355 pp.
- R69 - BirdLife International/European Bird Census Council. 2000. European bird populations: estimates and trends. Cambridge, UK. BirdLife International Conservation Series No. 10.
- R63 - BirdLife International (2004)b. Birds in Europe, population estimates, trends and conservation status. Cambridge, UK: BirdLife International. (BirdLife Conservation Series No. 12).
- R888 - Wetlands International, 2012. Results of trend analysis undertaken for CSR5 2012, presented in Annex 4. http://www.unep-aewa.org/meetings/en/mop/mop5_docs/pdf/mop5_14_csr5.pdf
- R1362 - European Topic Centre on Biological Diversity (in prep) Population and trend data provided by the EU Member States in the frame of their reporting under Article 12 of the EU Birds Directive. Online fact sheets. European Topic Centre on Biological Diversity, Paris. URL: http://bd.eionet.europa.eu/activities/Reporting/Article_12/Reports_2013/Member_State_Deliveries. Accessed on 31 July 2014.
- R1361 - BirdLife International, BTO, EBCC, CSO, IUCN, RSPB, SOVON, Wetlands International (in prep) Population and trend data provided to the European Red List of Birds Project funded by the European Commission. Digital dataset. BirdLife International, Cambridge, UK. Accessed on 31 July 2014.
- R1413 - Delany et al. (1996)
- R1414 - (Olsen, 2010)
- R1521 - SOVON in litt., 2014
- R1549 - BirdLife International 2015. European Red List of Birds. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities. http://datazone.birdlife.org/info/euroredlist
- R1548 - Wetlands International (2017) Flyway trend analyses based on data from the African-Eurasian Waterbird Census from the period of 1967-2015. Ede, The Netherlands: Wetlands International. URL: http://iwc.wetlands.org/index.php/aewatrends
- R1625 - BirdLife International (in prep) European Red List of Birds. Deliverable to the European Commission (DG Environment) in 2021 under Service Contract ENV.D.3/SER/2018/0018.
- R1619 - Nagy, S. & Langendoen, T. (2020) Flyway trend analyses based on data from the African-Eurasian Waterbird Census from the period of 1967-2018. Online publication. Wetlands International, Wageningen, The Netherlands. URL: http://iwc.test.wetlands.org/index.php/aewatrends8
- R1750 - Olsen, K. M. (2010). Gulls of Europe, Asia and North America. Bloomsbury Publishing.
- R1620 - van Roomen, M., Nagy, S., Citegetse, G., & Schekkerman, H. (2018). East Atlantic Flyway Assessment 2017: the status of coastal waterbird populations and their sites. Wadden Sea Flyway Initiative p/a CWSS, Wetlands International, BirdLife International, Wilhelmshaven, Wageningen and Cambridge. Retrieved from: https://www.waddensea-worldheritage.org/resources/east-atlantic-flyway-assessment-2017
- S2128 - BirdLife International (2004b): European breeding population 590,000-1,500,000 pairs (1,770,000 - 4,500,000 individuals), minus Russian breeders 250-000-1,000,000 pairs (750,000-3,000,000) = 1,020,000-1,500,000. Approximately 25% of Russian breeders estimated to be canus (187,500-750,000): 1,020,000-1,500,000 + 187,500-750,000 = 1,207,500-2,250,000. Earlier estimates did not include Russian portion of the population.
- T5052 - Wetlands International 2012. Trend 1983-2007: +3.9% p.a. - Increase. BirdLife International 2004b: Between 1990-2000, its breeding population declined in eight countries, including the UK, Sweden and Norway holding the majority of the population.
- T1406 - Wetlands International 2012. Trend 1983-2007: +3.9% p.a. â€“ Increase. BirdLife International 2004b: Between 1990-2000, its breeding population has declined in eight countries, including the UK, Sweden and Norway holding the majority of the population.
- S8405 - The current population estimate of 1,200,000-2,500,000 was established based on the breeding numbers from (International, 2004). The European Topic Centre on Biological Diversity (in prep.) and BirdLife International et al. (in prep.) produced a similar estimate of 414,151-539,523 pairs, i.e. 1,240,000-1,620,000 individuals based on national estimates from AT, BE, BY, CH, DE, DK, EE, FI, FR, HU, IE, IS, LT, LV, NL, NO, PL, RU, SE, SJ, SK, UK covering the period of 1998-2013. The main difference in comparison to the old estimate is the assumption concerning the proportion of Russian birds belonging to the canus subspecies. Delaney et al. (1996) assumed 25%, which resulted in 62,500-250,000 pairs from RU being allocated to this population. (Olsen, 2010) estimated only 40,000-60,000 canus in RU. However, even with 250,000 pairs in RU, the total number now would be less than 2,000,000 individuals. Therefore, the estimate is revised to 1,200,000-2,000,000 individuals.
- T6404 - Trend analysis based on mid-winter counts indicate stable/fluctuating trend both in the short and long-term (SOVON in litt., 2014). Overall trend estimated based on aggregation of national trends of wintering birds (European Topic Centre on Biological Diversity, in prep., BirdLife International et al., in prep.) is stable/fluctuating with a strong but statistically not significant tendency towards declining both in the short and the long-term (2000-2012: 0.928-1.0039, 1980-2012: 0.9957-1.0035). Similarly, the overall trend derived from the national trend for breeding birds is stable (2000-2012: 0.9803-1.0062, 1980-2012: 0.9967-1.0040). The population trend is unknown in RU, LV and SK, declining in the UK, NL, BE, PL and NO (without qualifying the rate of decline in the latter), but increasing in DK, IE, IS, BY and stable or fluctuating in the remaining countries.
- S8957 - 452,653-630,527 pairs in AT, BE, BY, CH, DE, DK, EE, FI, FR, HU, IE, IS, LT, LV, NL, NO, PL, RU (25%), SE, SJ, SK & UK.
- T7030 - Trends based on both the breeding and non-breeding numbers indicate that the population has increased in the long-term and stable/fluctuating in the short one.
- S9478 - The size of the breeding population is estimated at 476,949-659,600 pairs, or 1,400,000-2,000,000 individuals after rounding in AT, BE, BY, CH, CZ, DE, DK, EE, FI, FO, FR, HU, IE, IS, LT, LV, NL, NO, PL, SE, SJ, SK, GB (BirdLife International, in prep.), RU (25%, BirdLife International, 2015) based on data from the period of 1981-2018. The highest annual IWC count total between 2014â€“2018 was 398,476 individuals (Nagy & Langendoen, 2020). However, the wintering range of the nominate and the heinei subspecies broadly overlap (Olsen, 2010).
- T7621 - Based on BirdLife International (in prep.), it is estimated that the breeding population has decreased by 2-33% (equivalent to 4-48% in 3 generations) in AT, BY, CH, CZ, DE, DK, EE, IE, LT, LV, NL, NO, PL, SE, GB between 2009 and 2018. No quantitative trend information is available from BE, FI, FO, FR, IS, SJ, SK, RU. It has changed by -32-2% in AT, BE, BY, CH, CZ, DE, DK, EE, FI, FR, IE, LT, LV, NL, NO, PL, SE, GB between 1980 and 2018. No quantitative trend information is available from FO, IS, SJ, SK, RU. Based on IWC data, van Roomen et al. (2018) reported stable trends for 1994-2016 (1.00) and 2008-2016 (1.02). However, trends based on IWC counts might be not reliable for the status of the population because of mixing with the L. c. heinei, NE Europe & Western Siberia/Black Sea & Caspian population on part of the wintering grounds (Olsen, 2010).
Copyright Wetlands International 2012 Citation: Wetlands International (). "Waterbird Population Estimates" . Retrieved from wpe.wetlands.org on